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|SGML/XML: Related Standards|
ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 is a component of ISO/IEC JTC1, which is a collaborative effort of both the International Organization for Standards (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The Convenor of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 is Dr. James David Mason (Lockheed Martin Energy Systems). Note: ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 was formerly ISO WG4 Working Group 4 (ISO/IEC JTC1/WG4) Information Technology - Document Description and Processing Languages, and formerly ISO/IEC JTC1/SC18/WG8.
The SC34 Home pages supplies the ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 Scope and Terms of Reference as follows:
- languages for document logical structures and their support facilities
- languages for describing document-like objects in web environments
- document processing architecture and
- formatting for logical documents
- languages for describing interactive documents
- multilingual font information interchange and related services
- final-form document architecture and page information interchange
- hypermedia document structuring language and application resources
- APIs for document processing
See ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 34 Structure and document listing.
[August 31, 1998] The first meeting of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34, Document Description and Processing Languages, will be held in Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. the week of 9-13 November 1998, to coincide with XML '98 and Markup Technologies '98.
[June 08, 1998] Note: Tentative approval has been given for JTC 1/WG4 to be reconstituted as a full subcommittee. "Given the importance of the work currently being done in JTC 1WG4, JTC 1 disbands JTC 1/WG4 and establishes a new Subcommittee within JTC 1 (SC34) to carry out this work. This new SC will operate in the Technical Direction - Document Description Languages. . ." See the text of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC34 N1993, 8 June 1998; [local archive copy]
Note: As of October 1997, a reorganization of ISO JTC1 has led to the creation of a new working group, WG4. SC 18 has formally disbanded. "ISO/IEC JTC1/SC18/WG8 has now become ISO/IEC JTC1/WG4. The new WG4 will, at least for the present, report directly to JTC1." For the time being, the WG4 Home Page maintained by James Mason will be accessible via the URL for the former WG8, under the new title: "ISO/IEC JTC1/WG4 Web Service." Most references to "WG8" below may be understood as meaning the new WG4.
Extract of description: "ISO/IEC JTC1/SC18/WG8 is a component of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC18, a subcommittee of JTC1, which is a collaborative effort of both the International Organization for Standards and the International Electrotechnical Commission.
Scope and Terms of Reference: To produce standards for languages and resources for the description and processing of compound and hypermedia documents, including:
- Standard Generalized Markup Language and support facilities
- Document processing architecture and formatting for documents represented in SGML
- Final-form document architecture and Standard Page Description Language
- Font architecture, interchange format, and services
- Hypermedia document structuring language and application
See the primary URLs:
Address of the Convenor:
Dr. James D. Mason
(ISO/IEC JTC1/SC18/WG8 Convenor)
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Information Management Services
Bldg. 2506, M.S. 6302, P.O. Box 2008
Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6302 U.S.A.
Telephone: +1 615 574-6973
Facsimile: + 1 615 574-6983
[CR: 19980104] [Table of Contents]
ISO/IEC 10179:1996 was complete as of January 11, 1996, and was released to the ITTF for printing. Links to DSSSL sources, software, and supporting resources are provided below.
Note: As of August 6, 1997, the DSSSL materials below are being reworked: they will be moved to a separate document soon.
- Serialized tutorial article on DSSSL in three parts: "Formatting Documents with DSSSL Specifications and Jade," by Bob DuCharme, published in <TAG>: The SGML Newsletter, May, June, July 1997. See the bibliographic entry for full reference information.
- Sharon Adler, "The 'ABCs' of DSSSL." In Structured Information / Standards for Document Architectures = Journal of the American Society for Information Science [Special Issue] Volume 48, Number 7 (July 1997), pages 597-602. Similarly: Adler and Berglund, "ABCs of DSSSL," SGML '95 Proceedings, pages 1-9.
- Tutorial article by Dianne Kennedy, "An Introduction to DSSSL (ISO/IEC 10179)," in <TAG> 10/2 (February 1997). The first in an announced series of articles. Part 2: <TAG> 10/3 (March 1997) 1-4.
- Announcement from Jon Bosak for an expanded collection of simple tutorial materials for DSSSL (Document Style Semantics and Specification Language, ISO/IEC 10179). [March 03, 1997]
- Learn about DSSSL, starting with a simple example: See an example contributed by Jon Bosak for DSSSL stylesheets applied to (SGML-encoded) email messages. In the tutorial package, the files "show a simple SGML application and a set of DSSSL stylesheets for that application. The stylesheets are arranged in a progression that shows certain basic DSSSL features in action." [mirror copy], February 1997]
- [July 24, 1997] Announcement from Paul Prescod (University of Waterloo) for an online "Introduction to DSSSL." The tutorial does not presuppose a basic knowledge of Scheme. The URL: http://itrc.uwaterloo.ca/~papresco/dsssl/tutorial.html. The tutorial document was created March 10, 1997, and updated at least as recently as July 25, 1997.
- Announcement for a tutorial "Introduction to DSSSL," contributed by Daniel M. Germán. Tutorial prerequisites are said to include a basic SGML knowledge and a basic Scheme knowledge. [March 10, 1997]
- [July 19, 1997] Example/tutorial DSSSL specification from Eliot Kimber, documented in the paper "An Approach to Literate Programming With SGML Architectures." See the announcement from Eliot, or the abstract in the Topics section, sub "Architectural Forms and SGML Architectures."
- [January 04, 1998] DSSSL Documentation Project, coordinated by Mulberry Technologies, Inc. The DSSSL Documentation Project is "a collaborative effort by DSSSL users to write and disseminate documentation on all aspects of DSSSL for the purposes of: (1) introducing DSSSL to new users; (2) education for both new and experienced users; (3) assistance for people using DSSSL. The project draws on the combined experience of present users of DSSSL, principally those subscribed to the DSSSList mailing list, which also hosts the discussion between project participants."
- DSSSL Syntax Summary Index, by Harvey Bingham. Announcement from May 1996. [See also SGML Syntax Summary, May 1996 or later]
- DSSSList -- The DSSSL Users' Mailing List. See the database entry for additional details, and the administrative guidelines document [January 04, 1998].
- DSSSL Documentation Project Procedures Library. Includes Chapter 1: Procedures (IEEE/R4RS Procedures); Chapter 2: Scheme but not DSSSL procedures; Chapter 3: DSSSL-specific Procedures; Chapter 4: Debugging. [" based largely upon David Love's contribution of July 2, 1997"] Also: SGML source.
- DSSSL Documentation Project: GLOSSARY
- [October 14, 1997] The DSSSL Cookbook - Part of the DSSSL Documentation Project. "...arranged as a series of hints about using DSSSL, including style and techniques for writing DSSSL stylesheets as well as the use of specific DSSSL functions and flow object classes. The examples in the DSSSL Cookbook are cross-referenced to the material in the Flow Object Gallery which details features of the DSSSL flow object classes." See also: 'simple-page-sequence'.
- "Index to all DSSSL procedures by prototype", by Henry S. Thompson. Derived automatically from the DSSSL standard using Jade. April 21, 1997. [mirror copy]
- [September 05 , 1997] Announcement from Henry S. Thompson for a 'DSSSL Digest' programmer's resource. The DSSSL Digest "contains all the procedures and top-level expressions from the electronic version of the DSSSL standard document, in alphabetical order, with thumb-tabs. Each prototype is followed by the first paragraph of its definition in the standard. Multiple prototypes which share a definition are cross-referenced to the first prototype in the group, which is followed by the summary. Section numbers are given for all prototypes." [archive copy] Document via FTP.
- Property Definitions [Clause 9], provided by Arjan Loeffen. Tree overview in PostScript format; [local mirror copy]
- From Arjan Loeffen, Utrecht University: HyTime architectural forms: tree listing(DSSSL style sheet element trees are available as EPS files)
- "Node Properties in Jade", produced by David Megginson. From the overview of the document: "It is important to understand the implications of James's inclusion of the 'node-property' primitive in Jade 0.7 -- we now have direct, low-level access to the grove built from the parse SGML document, and can easily navigate from the root down to each leaf, and back again. . .[I have created] a web page to help [me] understand which classes and properties were supported by the current version of Jade, including the INTRBASE properties that are not part of the SGML grove plan proper." [archive copy]
- SENG/DSSSL Environment (A DSSSL Environment in Java)
- KEDIT Language Definition for DSSSL Specifications, from Geir Ove Grønmo, Falch Infotek. Version 1.0 - March 1997. See the [mirror copy].
- Practical Formatting Using DSSSL - DSSSL Courses from Crane Softwrights Ltd.
- [December 15, 1997] "Characters available in Jade" "The files charnames.dsl and charnames.sgml can be used to produce an RTF file that lists all of the characters available in Jade 1.0 via the '\charname;' syntax. To produce charnames.rtf do:
jade -t rtf -d charnames.dsl charnames.sgml. From Daniel Speck (Thomson Technology Services Group).
- See the dedicated section on DSSSL Software and related DSSSL development resources for a more complete listing of DSSSL software.
- Jade: James [Clark]'s DSSSL Engine. Jade Home Page: http://www.jclark.com/jade/. As of August 1997: "Jade includes the following components: (1) An abstract interface to groves; (2) An in-memory implementation of this interface built with SP; (3) A style engine that implements the DSSSL style language; (4) A command-line application,
jade, that combines the style engine with the spgrove grove interface and four backends: (i) a backend that generates an SGML representation of the flow object tree, (ii) A backend that generates RTF, (iii) A backend that generates TeX, (iv) A backend that generates SGML, llowing Jade to be used for SGML transformations. . ."
- DSSSL Syntax Checker, from Henry S. Thompson. See the announcement for version 1.0, or the earlier anouncement for version 0.7 [October 03, 1996]
- [October 28, 1997] Announcement from Henry S. Thompson for the release of an alpha version of xslj, a Jade-compatible XSL-to-DSSSL translator. "XSLJ is a virtually complete implementation of XSL by way of translation into extended DSSSL, as supported by the latest test release of James Clark's DSSSL engine Jade. XSLJ translates valid XSL style sheets into valid extended DSSSL style sheets, which can then be used to render XML documents using Jade. Virtually all of XSL as described in the W3C document 'A Proposal for XSL' is supported, although some minor modifications have been necessitated by the exigencies of implementation, all of which are described in detail in material contained in the release.." XSLJ development was supported by the UK Economic and Social Research Council via their support for HCRC and by a grant from Microsoft. See the University of Edinburgh Web site for details: http://www.ltg.ed.ac.uk/~ht/xslj.html
- Copernican Solutions Inc., DSSSL Developer's Toolkit - "The DSSSL Developer's Toolkit (dsssltk) provides a means for different DSSSL implementations in Java to share components such as parsers, transformation engines and flow object semantics. The toolkit contains three Java packages: dsssl.engine, dsssl.grove, and dsssl.flowobject."
This section provides information for 'DSSSL Online' (dsssl-o), 'DSSSL Lite,' and related efforts.
- Announcement from Jon Bosak for the completion of an editorial review of the DSSSL Online Application Profile (dsssl-o specification), August 16, 1996; HTML version from Sunsite FTP server [HTML mirror copy]; or fetch the Postscript/HTML in a .ZIP archive file: ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/sun-info/standards/dsssl/dssslo/do960816.zip [archive copy, August 17, 1996
- New work [May 1997] on 'enhancements to DSSSL (ISO/IEC 10179:1996) for use on the Web.' James Clark has begun to identify further requirements for the use of DSSSL on the Web, and to describe enhancements that could be standardized within the ISO effort, or alternatively, "standardized by some other organization using the extension mechanisms provided in DSSSL." The new work may be considered part of the larger dsssl-o (DSSSL Online) effort -- identifying facilities that need to be added. Issues currently identified include CSS1 formatting, linking, Non-SGML packaging, Implementation simplifications, Inserting Objects, Java Applets, Forms, Scripting, Math, and Miscellaneous. The issues are sketched in a document entitled DSSSL WWW Enhancements; [mirror copy, May 23 1997].
- "The Case for DSSSL Online." Presented at SGML Europe '96 by Jon Bosak [from SGML Open]
- Draft of the DSSSL Online Application Profile (by Jon Bosak), or ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/sun-info/standards/dsssl/dssslo/do951212.zip; [archive copy, April 1996 reflecting 1995.12.12 revision]; or version "Last revised 1996.08.16".
- [April 1996] Update from Jon Bosak: Description of DSSSL and dsssl-o
- DSSSL Lite (DL) Archive and Discussion Group, organized by Steve Pepper. "The materials contained here relate to the discussion on how to create a subset of DSSSL (Document Style Semantics and Specification Language, ISO/IEC DIS 10179.2) as the basis for a common style sheet language for the World Wide Web and other SGML applications." [see update below]
- The DSSSL Lite mailing list, "originally set up to provide a forum for discussions about defining a subset of DSSSL that could serve as a style sheet standard for on-line documents," has now been terminated, but the mailing list archive is still available [August 1997] online. Most of the messages are from 1994-1995, and the last message posted/archived was on Fri 12 Jan 1996.
- Announcement [December 13, 1996] for a preliminary DSSSL stylesheet for TEI-Lite, contributed by Richard Light. The stylesheet is available from the UNC Sunsite FTP server in ZIP format or in UNIX tar/gzip format; [archive copy].
- DSSSL specifications for the HyTime Standard: SGML source for HyTime Second Edition was used with four or more DSSSL specifications to generate the online HTML version, etc. The URLs for these DSSSL stylesheets are provided in this page.
- [September 24, 1997] "Converting SGML to Tagged MIF with Jade." MIF generation provided by Chris Maden, using Jade version 1.0. "The wrapper stylesheet incorporates a DTD- and MIF template-specific stylesheet, which in turn incorporates a set of MIF generation procedures. Also used are a short set of generally useful functions and some reference implementations of procedures from ISO/IEC 10179:1996 (DSSSL). An SGML Open catalog is provided for the various sets of procedures." [zip archive, local copy 970924]
- [November 01, 1997] Announcement from John D. Rice (ISOGEN International Corp) for a new release of a MIF Backend for Jade. ISOGEN has been sponsoring the development of this new MIF backend for Jade, and is currently in need of beta testers. The current version (1.0 Beta 2b) is freely available for download from http://www.isogen.com/JadeMif.html. See also the documentation and download information, 1.0 Beta 2b. [zipped source code of MIF backend , local archive copy (November 01, 1997)]
- [June 22, 1997] Announcement from Jon Bosak for a new version (0.70 - db070.dsl) of the Docbook 3.0 DSSSL stylesheet, thanks to a number of enhancements from Norman Walsh. Automatic Table of Contents Generation is among the enhancements. The stylesheet is available from the UNC Sunsite WWW server: http://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/sun-info/standards/dsssl/stylesheets/docbook/docbook3.dsl, or alternately via FTP: ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/sun-info/standards/dsssl/stylesheets/docbook. Or: [mirror copy].
- DSSSL Page of Norman Walsh. Documents active effort (Summer 1997) on the DSSSL stylesheet for DocBook 3.0. Release of the "Modular DocBook stylesheet 0.82" "incorporated a first cut at localization."
- [November 14, 1997] Announcement from Norman Walsh for the "reorganization of the Modular DocBook DSSSL Stylesheets (both print and HTML). . . also some productive things. Please try them and report back. The changes between 0.93 and 0.94 are so extensive that it would be difficult to document them in detail. All of the files in this distribution have been updated to have a version number of 0.94. My primary goal in making these changes was to build a common library of code for both the print and HTML stylesheets. To achieve this goal, a great deal of code was moved around and reorganized." See: http://www.berkshire.net/~norm/dsssl/.
- [January 08, 1998] Announcement for the public release of Modular DocBook Stylesheets version 1.01, from Norman Walsh. Version 1.01 is "Version 1.0" plus fixes for a couple bugs detected by Tony Graham before 1.0 was actually announced. In this release, the print and HTML stylesheets have been combined into a single distribution file, in .ZIP format. The print stylesheet may be used to generate
tex from the DocBook SGML source; the HTML stylesheet uses Jade's
SGML back end to generate HTML. [local archive copy]
- DocBook Online (DocBook-to-HTML) DSSSL Style Sheet, from Norm Walsh. Version 0.1, July 31, 1997. "To use this stylesheet, select the "SGML" output format (-t sgml in Jade). . . [this DSSSL spec is] based extensively on the modular DocBook Style Sheet." [archive copy, posted August 4, 1997]
- [July 3, 1997] DSSSL style sheet for DocBook to HTML conversion (jadeware) Version 1.6 1997/07/03 09:07:58. See previously: Updated DocBook to HTML Jadeware, by Mark Burton (email@example.com). June 24, 1997. DocBook 3 to HTML Converter [Updated DocBook to HTML Jadeware] version (1.3), dbtohtml.dsl, v 1.3 1997/06/24. Uses Jade and Perl.
- Alpha (version 0.63) DSSSL DocBook stylesheet, by Jon Bosak. See the text of the announcement, January 20, 1997. See below.
- Updated version of the DSSSL stylesheet for DocBook, version 0.68b, from Jon Bosak [with help from James Clark, Anders Berglund, Tony Graham, and Terry Allen ]. See ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/sun-info/standards/dsssl/stylesheets/docbook, or via HTTP: http://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/sun-info/standards/dsssl/stylesheets/docbook/docbook3.dsl. March 25, 1997.
- Sample DSSSL stylesheet for HTML 3.2 print output, November 17, 1996. Using a DSSSL engine such as James Clark's Jade, this DSSSL stylesheet may be used to generate customized print views of HTML 3.2 documents (via RTFm TeX, etc.). The stylesheet has been designed for easy modification, and tutorial instructions show how the output can be modified (including customizations based upon a modified DTD). Although the stylesheet is lacking support for a few extended HTML features, it supports "features missing from HTML 3.2 such as headers, footers, optional autonumbering of heads and table captions, automatic TOC (Table of Contents) generation, and the correct and completely extensible interpretation of named units in size and length attributes. The DSSSL stylesheet was created by Jon Bosak of Sun Microsystems, with assistance from Anders Berglund (EBT) and from James Clark. The distribution of the stylesheet includes the HTML 3.2 DTD, the DSSSL stylesheet, ISO Latin-1 entities, and an appropriate CATALOG. It also includes a thought-provoking article by Jon Bosak, "SGML, Java, and the future of the Web" in HTML format ([mirror copy] ). The source: ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/sun-info/standards/dsssl/stylesheets/html32/html32hc.zip, or [mirror copy].
- [Information now superseded, see above] - Sample DSSSL stylesheet for HTML 3.2 print output, contributed by Jon Bosak, SunSoft, based on work by Anders Berglund, EBT, with critical assistance from James Clark [July 1996]; alternate copy on tthe Clark server; **Update August 02: An updated/reworked version of the stylesheet is available as "html32hc.dsl.960802" [or its successor], accessible via FTP: ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/sun-info/standards/dsssl/stylesheets/html3_2
- [October 24, 1997] Announcement for a DSSSL stylesheet for HTML 4.0 (97-09-17 draft) tables. The "quasi-final version." Created for the W3C XML WG by Christopher R. Maden of O'Reilly and Associates (firstname.lastname@example.org. The .ZIP archive contains the stylesheet and two HTML test files. One should read the announcement and associated documentation before using the stylesheet. [local archive copy of the .ZIP archive]
- [December 05, 1997] DSSSL Stylesheet for SGML/XML 97 Conference Papers. From Paul Prescod. "This stylesheet converts the SGML/XML 97 DTD into HTML." Use it with Jade:
jade -t sgml -d gcapaper.dsl mypaper.sgml. See the stylesheet itself, and local mirror copy, December 05, 1997.
- "Characters available in Jade" "The files charnames.dsl and charnames.sgml can be used to produce an RTF file that lists all of the characters available in Jade 1.0 via the '\charname;' syntax. (Daniel Speck)
- [Information now superseded, see above] - Version 960802 of Jon Bosak's HTML 3.2 DSSSL stylesheet; [mirror copy]; see its README document; [mirror copy, August 04, 1996]
- Using the DSSSL style language for transforming into HTML (example from James Clark, July 1996)
- Sample: Jade DSSSL stylesheet for formatting proposals to speak at SGML/XML '97; [archive copy]
- "Overview: XML, HTML, and all that", by Jon Bosak, Sun Microsystems. Presented on April 11, 1997. Compares and contrasts SGML, HTML, and XML; DSSSL and/versus CSS as style languages. On the style language comparison: see the entry in the stylesheet section. [Archive copy .ZIP, or overview document text only]
- Technical Corrigendum for ISO/IEC 10179: DSSSL from James Clark. WG8 N1883 (11 November 1996); [archive copy]
- [Perhaps partially dated information: DSSSL (Document Style Semantics and Specification Language) is under ISO Project JTC188.8.131.52.1. The second DIS version of DSSSL (ISO/IEC DIS 10179.2) was being reviewed (late 1994) for approval as an IS. Voting may (have) close(d) on 1994-12-25 or 1995-01-25. The draft version as of early 1995 is available through the normal distribution channels for a DIS, but is also available in PostScript or PDF format (partially in SGML as well) at a number of Internet locations. There is a special working group preparing a feature list for a DSSSL subset (DSSSL Lite), to be implemented as a means of supporting electronic style sheets for "HTML" documents. A list of relevant sites follows.
- Remote file infosrv1.ctd.ornl.gov/pub/sgml/WG8/DSSSL
- Remote file ftp.ebt.com/pub/dsssl/
- Matthew Fuchs, "Semantic Extensions to DSSSL to Handle Trees." Presentation at SGML '96, and pages 441-448 in SGML '96 Conference Proceedings. Celebrating a Decade of SGML. See the bibliographic entry for abstract and links to the document online.
- R. Alexander Milowski, "Transformation as the Basis of Application: DSSSL in Practice." Presentation at SGML '96, and pages 449-462 in SGML '96 Conference Proceedings. Celebrating a Decade of SGML. See the bibliographic entry for the abstract.
- Note on DSSSL (DIS) by Erik Naggum: bibliographic reference or the full article
- Tabulation of voting results, early 1995 (DSSSL passes, only Germany votes "no"). See the posting supplied by Erik Naggum.
- According to WG8 Document #1789 (Annual Report of the Convenor of WG8 to SC18, 9-June-1995), "The second DIS ballot on DSSSL succeeded with only one negative vote. The comments are being resolved and a final text is in preparation. The final publication date is expected to be September 1995."
- "DSSSL and DSSSL Lite": DSSSL and/vs FOSI. A NAVYSGML link
- Multimedia/Hypermedia Standards Activity - October 1995
- Copernican Solutions SGML Implementor's Resource, with DSSSL Information
[CR: 19970602] [Table of Contents]
Warning: The XML section is being moved. Change your bookmark to: http://xml.coverpages.org/xml.html
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is descriptively identified as "an extremely simple dialect of SGML" the goal of which "is to enable generic SGML to be served, received, and processed on the Web in the way that is now possible with HTML," for which reason "XML has been designed for ease of implementation, and for interoperability with both SGML and HTML." XML is being "developed by a W3C Generic SGML Editorial Review Board formed under the auspices of the W3 Consortium in 1996 and chaired by Jon Bosak of Sun Microsystems, with the very active participation of a Generic SGML Working Group also organized by the W3C." [adapted from the Abstract of WD-xml-961101]
Features in SGML but not in XML include [November 5, 1996], though not exhaustively: "Tag omission; The CONCUR, LINK, DATATAG, and SHORTREF features; The "&" connector in content models; Inclusions and exclusions in content models; CURRENT, CONREF, NAME, NAMES, NUMBER, NUMBERS, NUTOKEN, and NUTOKENS declarations for attributes; The NET construct; Abstract syntax; Capacities and quantities; Comments appearing within other markup declarations; Public Identifiers; Omission of quotes on attribute values."
The W3C SGML Editorial Review Board, as of November 5, 1996, has the following members: Jon Bosak, Sun (email@example.com), chair; Tim Bray, Textuality (firstname.lastname@example.org), editor; James Clark (email@example.com), technical lead; Dan Connolly (firstname.lastname@example.org), W3C contact; Steve DeRose, EBT (email@example.com), editor; Dave Hollander, HP (firstname.lastname@example.org); Eliot Kimber, Passage Systems (email@example.com); Tom Magliery, NCSA (firstname.lastname@example.org); Eve Maler, ArborText (email@example.com); Jean Paoli, Microsoft (firstname.lastname@example.org); Peter Sharpe, SoftQuad (email@example.com); C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, U. of Ill. at Chicago (firstname.lastname@example.org), editor.
XML: Official Draft/Working Versions and Reference Materials
Warning: The XML section is being moved. Change your bookmark to: http://xml.coverpages.org/xml.html
- [March 05, 1997] The Extensible Markup Language (XML) Specification is now canonically in two parts, as indicated by the hub page: (1) Extensible Markup Language (XML) [W3C Working Draft 14-Nov-96], and (2) Hypertext Links in XML [W3C Working Draft March-5-97], [mirror copy].
- Extensible Markup Language (XML) Home Page from W3C
- [April 02, 1997] New revision of Part I. Extensible Markup Language (XML): Part I. Syntax Reference ids: WD-xml-lang-970331; W3C-SGML-ERB DD-1996-0004; W3C Working Draft 31-Mar-97. [mirror copy]
- Extensible Markup Language (XML): Part 2. Linking , W3C Working Draft April-06-97 = WD-xml-link-970406. Part 2 of the XML draft "specifies a simple set of constructs that may be inserted into XML documents to describe links between objects. It is a goal to use the power of XML to create a structure that can describe both the simple unidirectional hyperlinks of today's HTML, as well as more sophisticated multi-ended, typed, self-describing links." The editors are Tim Bray (Textuality) and Steve DeRose (Inso Electronic Publishing Solutions). [mirror copy]
- XML FAQ - Extensible Markup Language Frequently Asked Questions from the Textuality Web Site (XML editor, Tim Bray)
- XML (Extensible Markup Language) FAQ document (Draft Version 1.0, 1 May 1997), from Peter Flynn of University College, Cork. "Commonly Asked Questions about the Extensible Markup Language: The XML FAQ." A version 1.0 [mirror copy, text only, on May 08, 1997]. Earlier drafts: [mirror copy 0.5, April 01, 1997], [mirror copy 0.4 February 23, 1997]
- W3C Notes- "Some thoughts and software on XML", by Bert Bos [May 23, 1997]
- Announcement from Jon Bosak for the availability of a draft document "that puts the existing DSSSL Online (dsssl-o) specification in a form that can easily be made into a Working Draft for XML Part 3 (Part 3 of the XML specification suite)" as the discussion for XML Part 3 (XML Style) now gets underway. Although different style specifications may be developed for XML documents, "xml-style has always been defined as based on a subset of DSSSL." See http://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/sun-info/standards/dsssl/xs/xs970522.ps.zip, or possibly a later version; [mirror copy]
- The March 31, 1997 draft of the XML Language specification is also available from the Sunsite WWW server, in Postscript format or in RTF format; [mirror copy for gzipped Postscript]
- Extensible Markup Language. Version 1.0. W3C Working Draft 14-November-96. Reference number: WD-xml-961114. This version is "intended for review by W3C members and other interested parties." Available in HTML format from the W3C WWW server: http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/TR/WD-xml-961114.html
- Available from the Textuality server; [mirror copy, from November 15, 1996]
- [June 02, 1997] Announcement from Murata Makoto (Fuji Xerox Information Systems) for the completion of a Japanese translation of Part 1 and Part 2 of the XML (Extensible Markup Language) specification. The URL for the translated specifications documents is: http://www.iijnet.or.jp/FXIS/XSoft/sgml/xml/WD-jxml.html -- part of the main XML page sponsored by Fuji. Work is also underway to translate the XML FAQ document, and the important article "XML, Java and the Future of the Web".
- Announcement for a translation of the November XML draft into Japanese, provided by Mr. Murata Makoto of Fuji Xerox Information Systems. The draft is available at http://www.iijnet.or.jp/FXIS/XSoft/sgml/xml/xml-lj11.htm [March 18, 1997]
- XML - Links from James K. Tauber's XML page
- XML Links - From DataChannel
- XML Information in the "Document Interchange Standards" Page, OII Standards and Specifications List
- Extensible Hyper Linkage (XHL): WD-xhl-970211 - "Working Draft" only, [Version 1.0 INITIAL DRAFT, partial redraft, 11 February 1997, . . .intended for public discussion]; [mirror]
- Extensible Markup Language (XML) - Summary and Resources, from the Textuality Web Site
- Section on XML Software Tools in the SGML/XML Web Page
- XML-DEV, an XML development mailing list, maintained/organized by Peter Murray-Rust and Henry Rzepa. See text of the announcement, and also the WAIS-indexed searchable archives from the forum.
- XML BNF, generated by Henry S. Thompson
Warning: The XML section is being moved. Change your bookmark to: http://xml.coverpages.org/xml.html
- Summary description of XML, by Jon Bosak [April 07, 1997]
- Online feature article covering XML, by Mark Walter, in Seybold Report on Internet Publishing 1/4 (December 1996): 3-5. Article title: "W3C Publishes Draft of Simplified SGML. At Last a Sensible Way to Extend HTML." Also available in PDF format.
- Article on XML in The Bulletin: Seybold News and Views on Electronic Publishing, Volume 2, No. 7 (November 20, 1996): "W3C Debutes Draft of Simplified SGML"
- "W3C Publishes Draft of Simplified SGML. XML Allows User-definable Tags". Article in Seybold Report on Publishing Systems 26/6 (November 30, 1996): 41 [bibliographic entry]
- A comparison of XML and HTML, by Jon Bosak. A posting to Usenet Newsgroup 'comp.infosystems.www.misc', November 22, 1996.
- "Netscape Replies to XML [not interested now, thank you!]." See Seybold Report on Internet Publishing 1/5 (January 1997): 2. See the abstract in the bibliographic entry for details on Netscape's [January 1997] position.
- Article in InfoWorld by Lynda Radosevich, "W3C Preps XML Despite Netscape's Snub." Text includes: "...[besides GCA] Other supporters of XML are Digital, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, JavaSoft, Microsoft, Novell, Spyglass, and Sun. But notably missing is an endorsement from Netscape, which stated that it believes the extensions [viz., the Net user's ability to create new tags for Web documents in a standardized manner] are not needed." See InfoWorld 19/9 (March 03, 1997): 43, or the online version of the document; [mirror copy, text only].
- Article on XML by J. David Becke in ec.com ('The Magazine for Electronic Commerce Management') 3/2 (February 1997): 56, "X 'Marks Up' the Spot...XML" [ISSN: 1084-6328]
- Press release from Murray Maloney, Technical Director of SoftQuad Inc., announcing support for XML by SoftQuad and other Web Technology Leaders (Microsoft, Sun, NCSA and Dow Jones Interactive Publishing). See also the HTML version of the press release; [mirror copy]. (March 11, 1997)
- Article on XML by John Gartner: "HTML Alternative Standard Gets Backers." In: TechWire Tuesday, March 18, 1997 9:00 AM EST. However, note inaccuracies corrected by Jean Paoli of Microsoft. [mirror copy, text only]
- Article by Clarisse Burger [Standards et technologies, Internet] "XML: un pas en avant pour l'édition sur le Web!" in Le Monde Informatique, Numéro 711 du 28 février; [mirror copy, text only]
- Article by Liora Alschuler: "XML Could Sidestep HTML Split," in WebWeek [The Newspaper of Web Technology and Business Strategy] 3/7 (March 24, 1997); see summary in the bibliographic entry; [mirror copy]
- An article on XML in WebWeek 3/9 (April 7, 1997), by Liora Alschuler: Netscape's new disposition. Article title: "Netscape, On Second Thought, Warms to XML." [mirror copy, text only]
- (April 11, 1997) "The Web is Ruined and I Ruined it.", by David Siegel. Feature article on HTML/XML in Web Review; [archive copy, text only]; document source on FoRK-archive, [mirror copy]
- (April 18, 1997) "CONFÉRENCE ANNUELLE DU WORLD WIDE WEB: Netscape reconnaît XML", by Cyril Dhénin, in Le Monde Informatique n718 - 18 avril 1997, [archive copy]. An English translation of the article is also available ["Netscape Acknowledges XML"], from Todd Freter (Todd.Freter@Eng.Sun.COM)
- (April 14, 1997) "[XML] Markup Language Takes HTML to Task", by Michael Moeller, in PC Week 14/15 (April 14, 1997) 6. See also the published abstract in the bibliographic entry.
- "XML will take the Web to the next level. Labs explore enabling technologies of next-generation markup language", by Eamonn Sullivan. PCWEEK Online, April 28, 1997; [archive copy, text only]
- XML Overview - From Microsoft, April 30, 1997; [archive copy]
- [May 12, 1997] XML Spec May Transform The Web, by Karen Rodriguez. INTER@CTIVE WEEK May 12, 1997. [archive copy, text only]
- [May 18, 1997]. XML is featured prominently as the cover story in Web Review for May 18, 1997. The four-part article entitled "The XML Files: Multidimensional Files that Go Beyond HTML" is authored by Web Review publiisher Dale Dougherty, also 'co-founder of O'Reilly & Associates, head of O'Reilly's Digital Media Group, and publisher and developer of Global Network Navigator (GNN).' Following an overview of XML -- excerpted from a longer document "XML, Java and the Future of the Web" by Jon Bosak (Sun Microsystems, also Chair of the W3C XML Working Group) -- the article includes the following sections:
- [May 22, 1997.] "XML Is The Future Of HTML", by Jason Levitt. InformationWeek Online May 19, 1997. [mirror copy]
- [May 23, 1997]. "Experts' Revolution. XML: a professional alternative to HTML," by Ingo Macherius. In iX-magazine [Online Edition], May 14, 1997. Summary: "An alternative to HTML is on the horizon and it should be taken seriously. Extensible Markup Language is being proposed by the W3 Consortium and could soon - at least on commercial sites - supersede HTML." Other URLs: Original version in German.
- "XML, Java, and the future of the Web" in HTML format, by Jon Bosak, Sun Microsystems. Revised 1996.11.25 [mirror copy]. A Postcript version is also available.
- Announcement from Tim Bray of Textuality for Lark, an XML processor. From the descriptive document "An Introduction to XML Processing with Lark," the abstract of which says, in part: "Lark is a non-validating XML processor implemented in the Java language; it attempts to achieve good trade-offs among compactness, completeness, and performance. . . Lark is available on the Internet for general public use."
- Fuji Xerox Information Systems has put up a nice Japanese XML information page at http://www.iijnet.or.jp/FXIS/XSoft/sgml/xml.htm
- Why XML is Important, by Len Bullard (Lockheed Martin)
- XML parser written in Java, by Norbert Mikula. The lexical analyzer and the grammar has been defined using the parser generator Jack. In pre-beta stage. URL: NXP - Norbert's XML Parser, and a small test instance, by Jon Bosak. (January 14, 1997)
- Press release from AIS/Berger-Levrault that AIS Software will support XML in its Balise software; [mirror copy]
- Status of XML work (January 08, 1997), by Job Bosak
XML: Other Supporting Documents and Links
Warning: The XML section is being moved. Change your bookmark to: http://xml.coverpages.org/xml.html
- See: "Generic SGML over the Web." A document on the W3C Web server which includes a provisional timetable for the XML design: "(1) simplified version of SGML suitable for Internet applications [SGML '96, November 1996]; (2) specification of standard hypertext mechanisms for SGML applications [ WWW6 Conference, April 1997]; (3) Public text and extensions needed to apply the DSSSL stylesheet language (ISO/IEC 10179) to Web browsers [December 1997]"
- Sample XML documents with DTDs (e.g., Bible, Shakespeare), for the benefit of anyone developing XML tools; provided by Jon Bosak. See the announcement for URLs and other details.
- "Adding Strong Data Typing to SGML and XML", by Tim Bray. May [21,] 1997. archive copy, May 21, 1997; or: previous archive copy, May 15, 1997]. Note: Jean Paoli of Microsoft has submitted a related proposal in connection with the XML discussion "XML for Structured Data"
- "A Proposal for Namespaces in XML", by Henry S. Thompson. Language Technology Group, HCRC, Edinburgh. May 27, 1997. Overview: "...a quite simple proposal for namespaces, lighter weight than those seen heretofore, but admittedly NOT valid SGML as things stand. I think its light weight, flexibility and functionality commend it." See also a "free-form XML" version submitted to the W3C SGML WG list. [HTML mirror copy]
- Relative (also) to 'namespaces' in XML: "A Proposal to Introduce 'Module' Structures into SGML" [namespaces], by Toru Takahashi. 12 November 1996. [mirror copy], also available as http://www.ornl.gov/sgml/wg8/document/1873.doc.
- PICS-NG Metadata Model and Label Syntax (W3C WD-pics-ng-metadata-970514.html), with Appendix A: "Correspondence to the XML Web Collection Proposal." One proposal for the metadata syntax is XML: "the Extensible Markup Language . . .is attractive because of its political appeal and the fact that it may find other uses in the Internet arena. The full definition of an XML syntax for PICS-NG will be included in a future version of this document." [mirror copy]
- W3C SGML ERB Working Document Repository, representing "a snapshot of work under way in the World Wide Web Consortium SGML Editorial Review Board." Maintained by Tim Bray [NB: "These documents are not official in any sense..."] The following four links are from this document collection:
- W3C-SGML-ERB Technical Resolution 1996-01: SGML ERB and WG Organization [Approved 1996.08.07]; [unofficial mirror copy, November 5, 1996]
- W3C SGML ERB External Communication 1996-01: Bootstrap Process for Specialized WG/ERB [Approved 1996.08.07]; [unofficial mirror copy, November 5, 1996]
- Draft DD-1996-0001 - Design Principles for XML [Date: August 25, 1996]; [unofficial mirror copy, November 5, 1996]
- Features and Rules of ISO 8879. A Summary for Use In Discussions of the W3C SGML Working Group And Editorial Review Board. Document W3C-SGML-ERB DD-1996-0002, by C. M. Sperberg-McQueen. Contains a linked listing of proposed subsets or simplifications of SGML, as collected by Michael Sperberg-McQueen. [12 September 1996 ]; [unofficial mirror copy, November 5, 1996].
- A [n almost the latest] version of the W3C draft document in HTML format: available from the Textuality server: http://www.textuality.com/sgml-erb/WD-xml.html; [ unofficial mirror copy, 961104 ]
- Official document of November 01, 1996 is: "Extensible Markup Language. W3C Working Draft 1-Nov-96, [WD-xml-961101]" edited by Tim Bray [Textuality] and C. M. Sperberg-McQueen [University of Illinois at Chicago]. This version is available via the W3C server: http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/TR/WD-xml.html
- See the section on "SGML Revision" for additional links to documents describing a simplified SGML: ( e.g., 'MGML' by Tim Bray, and 'Minimal SGML Feature Set,' by Eliot Kimber)
- "Hyperlinking and XML: Minimum Progress Required to Declare Victory", by Tim Bray
- TEI Extended Pointers (Links) tutorial, by Lou Burnard. See also chapter 14 of the TEI Guidelines. See also this unofficial archive copy as a single-file document.
- The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) -- A report on the work to date [November 07, 1996] of the SGML on the Web ERB, by Martin Bryan, The SGML Centre. [mirror copy, November 07, 1996]; [mirror copy, October 30, 1996]
- Chemical Markup Language for molecular information- uses XML and Java [Peter Murray-Rust, Virtual School of Molecular Sciences]
- An Introduction to Structured Documents", by Peter Murray-Rust, discusses XML (http://www.venus.co.uk/omf/cml/doc/tutorial/xml.html); [asociated note]
- A GCA-sponsored conference on XML, March 10-12, 1997, San Diego, California. Conference title: "Selling SGML Using XML on the Web." See the preliminary conference program, or the main conference entry in the SGML/XML Web Page, or the GCA Press release announcing the conference.
- XML Course: "Making XML Work", April 28-30, 1997, Denver, Colorado. Taught by Tim Bray and Brian Travis.
- WWW6 Workshop: "Delivery of Structured Documents over the Web, XML and DSSSL"; also see http://www6conf.slac.stanford.edu/workshops/structure.html
- See the conference entry, with a report by Martin Bryan: European Conference on XML. "XML Ready for Prime Time?" London, UK. April 22, 1997.
[CR: 19991027] [Table of Contents]
On April 4, 1998, An announcement was posted from the editors of ISO-HTML for the availability of ISO/IEC CD 15445 HTML, in HTML format. Roger Price and David Abrahamson have also produced a User's Guide to ISO/IEC 15445:1998 HyperText Markup Language (HTML). According to the Introduction in this guide: "The ISO-HTML language is an application of the International Standard ISO/IEC 8879 -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). . . The International Standard was developed in an effort to ensure that it will remain possible for an author to produce simple hypertext for the web and be confident that a conforming browser will be able to render the document faithfully. . . The language defined by the International Standard is a refinement of the W3C Recommendation for HTML 4.0 and provides additional specifications for the use of that document. All documents conforming to the International Standard also conform to the W3C Recommendation for HTML 4.0. ISO-HTML omits all deprecated features of the language, features whose role is purely cosmetic, and features which are still unstable or immature. This has been done in preparation for the expected wide adoption of style sheets by authors and browser manufacturers. Certain optional facilities such as markup omission of the document and other major elements have been removed to produce more robust texts in keeping with recognized good SGML practice. This does not reduce in any way the expressive power of the language. The conformance statements in the International Standard distinguish between a conforming system and a validating system. Conforming systems behave correctly when processing conforming documents, but are not required to handle errors. Validating systems are required to identify all SGML and ISO-HTML errors, and must be able to certify that a document is valid ISO-HTML. Commercial browsers are usually conforming systems, whereas authoring tools check for validity."
[October 25, 1999] ISO/IEC 15445:1999(E) Hypertext Markup Language (ISO-HTML) Available Online. A communiqué from Russell Steven Shawn O'Connor notes that a a revised 'First edition' of ISO/IEC 15445:1999(E) is now available online: Information technology -- Document description and processing languages -- HyperText Markup Language (HTML) ['First edition 1999-00-00, Copyright 1999 IETF, W3C (MIT, Inria, Keio), ISO/IEC'] "International Standard ISO/IEC 15445 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, Subcommittee SC34, Document description languages. JTC1/SC34 has worked on this project in close cooperation with the World Wide Web Consortium. This International Standard makes normative reference to the W3C Recommendation for HTML 4.0 amended by the HTML 4.0 Specification Errata. Annexes A ['SGML declaration'] and B ['Entities, element types and attributes'] form a normative part of this International Standard. The International ISO/IEC 15445 "is a refinement of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C's) Recommendation for HTML 4.0; it provides further rules to condition and refine the use of the W3C Recommendation in a way which emphasizes the use of stable and mature features, and represents accepted SGML practice. Documents which conform to this International Standard also conform to the strict DTD provided by the W3C Recommendation for HTML 4.0. [...] The scope of this International Standard is a conforming application of ISO 8879, SGML. This International Standard describes the way in which the HTML language specified by the following clauses in the W3C Recommendation for HTML 4.0 shall be used, and does so by identifying all the differences between the HTML language specified by the W3C Recommendation for HTML 4.0 and the HTML language defined by this International Standard..." See also the "Users Guide to ISO/IEC 15445"; alt. from SC34 site. ['Proposed Final Draft' local archive copy]
[From 1997:] 'ISO-HTML' is a proposed ISO/IEC International Standard for the HyperText Markup Language (HTML). An excerpt from the proposed text of the Final CD (referenced below) supplies an overview of the project objectives and its rationale. ISO-HTML was a new effort in 1996-1997, under the auspices of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC18/WG8. According to Report on W3C HTML 4.0/ISO-HTML Harmonization Meeting [WG8 N1931]: "The final Committee Draft of ISO 15445 ISO-HTML is currently under review, and balloting will end on August 15th 1997." [it was successfully balloted]
[December 07, 1997] N1944 was accepted by WG4 as editing instructions for ISO-HTML, ISO Hypertext Markup Language, and the editors were instructed to prepare a new text for Final CD ballot. For background information on the decision, see "Recommendations of the Alexandria Meeting" of WG4 (5 December 1997).
[October 29, 1997] Update: As of October 14, 1997, the editors of ISO-HTML had completed documents relating to the disposition of comments on the (August 15th) ballot, and on the consultation with W3C. The proposed text of a Final CD 15445 is complete, and may soon be sent out to JTC1 for ballot as the Final CD. The Final CD 15445 - Work in Progress is publicly available in SGML, PDF, and Postscript formats.
The New Project Proposal to ISO, as documented in WG8 N1853 (May 21, 1996), said of the new ISO HTML ("Standard HTML"): "This standard shall be a conforming application of SGML, suited to serve the needs of JTC1 and others needing a stable format for documents displayed on the World-Wide Web (WWW)." The purpose and justification was given as follows: "While HTML has grown rapidly, many of the latest features are of minimal use to those who desire a simple, stable format for presenting documents on the WWW. The working group that developed the early versions of HTML is being disbanded, and a new group is needed to maintain basic functionality. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC18/WG8, as the developers of SGML, has the necessary knowledge and skills."
The introduction to the draft (see below) describes ISO-HTML as "an SGML application conforming to International Standard ISO 8879" ... that "provides a simple way of structuring hypertext documents which refer to one another and which collectively create an enormous "web" which continues to grow and evolve as many hypertext authors add and modify documents." The rationale for the standard is explained in these terms: "The web has expanded and browser developers have added additional features to the markup language such as new tags and new semantics for the tags. As a result, many documents have been created which can only be rendered faithfully on a limited number of browsers. Normal web practice is to hide any syntactic problems detected by the browsers and thus the reader is not always aware that the page being browsed is not faithful to the original authored document. . . This [text for proposed standard] has been developed in an effort to ensure that it will remain possible for an author to produce simple hypertext for the web and be confident that a conforming browser will be able to render the document faithfully. This specification represents a core of the language to be supported by all conforming browsers and provides techniques for extending the core that are SGML conformant and represent good SGML practice." [from the draft, ca. 970326]
As of February 12, 1997, a (very) provisional committee draft has been produced, along with sample proposed DTDs and corresponding documents. Documentation describing the differences between ISO-HTML and HTML 3.2 is available through WG8 channels, or possibly from the designers. Among other changes, the current CD-proposal for ISO-HTML "extends the W3C's HTML 3.2 Recommendation to include the IETF HTML internationalization features defined by RFC 2070."
As of March 26, 1997, [see the WG8 document with the announcement] CD text from the ISO-HTML editors and supporting documents became available. Further information is provided in the links below. Note: While there is [was] no indication from the FTP server (at the Department of Computer Science, Trinity College Dublin) that the draft information is regarded private, still, as with other online WG8 standards materials: (1) it is the relevant domain of WG8 and liaisons, (2) participation in the standards work presumably follows normal rules, and (3) relevant copyright conventions undoubtedly apply to the documents, as to all publicly-accessible documents on the Net.
- Anouncement for Availability of Final ISO/IEC CD 15445 HTML, ISO/IEC JTC1/WG4 N1966. [local archive copy]
- ISO/IEC 15445:1998(E) [Final CD, First edition 1998-00-00] "Information Technology -- Document Description and Processing Languages -- HyperText Markup Language (HTML)." Editors: Roger Price and David Abrahamson. See also WG4 copy. [local archive copy, 980404]
- User's Guide to ISO/IEC 15445:1998 HyperText Markup Language(HTML), by Roger Price and David Abrahamson. [local archive copy, 980403]
- Editor's report on the Final CD 15445 ISO-HTML. November 6, 1997. [N1936, local archive copy]
- Proposed text of Final CD for ISO-HTML. N1935. October 14, 1997
- Summary of ISO-HTML, from the Introduction (proposed text)
- Document Description and Processing Languages: Availability of CD text for ISO-HTML Hypertext Markup Language
- ISO HTML: collected links
- Historical reference: ISO HyperText Markup Language Document Type Definition
- Historical reference: Draft text for ISO-HTML, from the editors of ISO-HTML. This is apparently the provisional draft text "the future International Standard marked up using the DTD defined by ISO TR 9573 for use at the ISO Central Secretariat."
- Historical reference: Postscript version of draft text as "work in progress", letter size; (March 27, 1997)
- WG8 and W3C cooperation. Report on informal meeting with W3C HTML editor, May 16th 1997. [mirror copy]
- [July 15, 1997] Report on W3C HTML 4.0/ISO-HTML Harmonization Meeting, July 15th 1997. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 18/WG8 N1931. Harmonization between ISO-HTML and HTML 4.0. [archive copy, July 15, 1997]
[CR: 19970402][Table of Contents]
Standard Page Description Language (SPDL) is under ISO Project JTC184.108.40.206.2, documented as ISO/IEC DIS 10180. According to WG8 Document #1789 (Annual Report of the Convenor of WG8 to SC18, 9-June-1995), "The SPDL project has delivered its final text to ISO for publication"; see also from Multimedia and Hypermedia Standards Activity, January 1996: "ISO has now formally published ISO 10180, the Standard Page Description Language (SPDL)."
[CR: 19980610] [Table of Contents]
Note that in the "Recent Changes to ISO 8879" as documented in ISO/IEC JTC1/WG4 N1983 and related documents, the production  for "owner identifier" has been augmented. See: Annex K.4.6 'Internet domain names in public identifiers': "
owner identifier = ISO owner identifier | registered owner identifier | unregistered owner identifier | internet domain name owner identifier," where
internet domain name owner identifier [83.1] = "+//IDN ", minimum data and where the 'minimum data' must begin with an internet domain name."
[CR: 20001020] [Table of Contents]
ISO 15924 is a an international standard being developed under ISO TC46/SC2 (International Technical Committee 46 / Subcommittee 2), "Conversion of Written Languages." The document is now (June 1998) a Draft CD, and specifies names of scripts: Code for the Representation of Names of Scripts (Code pour la représentation des noms des écritures). The scope of this standards work is the design of script codes "for use in terminology, lexicography, and linguistics, but they may be used for any application requiring the expression of scripts in coded form." The standard "also includes guidance on the use of script codes in some of these applications."
In form, script codes have been "created from the original script name in the language commonly used for it, transliterated or transcribed into Latin letters. If a country, where the script concerned has the status of a national script, requests a certain script code, preference is given to this code whenever possible. The two-letter and three-letter codes shall be written with an initial capital Latin letter and final small Latin letter(s) (both taken from the range Aa[a]-Zz[z]). This serves to differentiate script codes from language codes, and country codes: so, for example, Mon mon MON or Mn mn MN would refer to a book in the Mongolian script, in the Mongolian language, originating in Mongolia. [. . .] The two-letter and three-letter codes are derived from ISO 639 and from ISO 639-2 respectively [sic! and] where there is an identity between the name of a script and the name of a language using the script (example: Gujaratiguj/gu, Guj/Gu). In some cases where there is no identity the script name has a unique form. . ." [from the second CD, 1998-05-26]
- [November 2000] ISO/FDIS 8601. DRAFT STANDARD. ISO/FDIS 8601:2000(E). Data elements and interchange formats -- Information interchange -- Representation of dates and times. Éléments de données et formats d'échange -- Échange d'information -- Représentation de la date et de l'heure. "This International Standard includes specifications for a numeric representation of information regarding date and time of the day. In order to achieve similar formats for the representations of calendar dates, ordinal dates, dates identified by week number, time-intervals, recurring time-intervals, combined date and time of day, and differences between local time and Coordinated Universal Time, and to avoid ambiguities between these representations, it has been necessary to use, apart from numeric characters, either single alphabetic characters or one or more other graphic characters or a combination of alphabetic and other characters in some of the representations. The above action has had the benefit of enhancing the versatility and general applicability of previous International Standards in this field, and provides for the unique representation of any date or the time expression or combination of these. Each representation can be easily recognized, which is beneficial when human interpretation is required. This International Standard retains the most commonly used expressions for date and time of the day and their representations from the earlier International Standards and provides unique representations for some new expressions used in practice. Its application in information interchange, especially between data processing systems and associated equipment will eliminate errors arising from misinterpretation and the costs these generate. The promotion of this International Standard will not only facilitate interchange across international boundaries, but will also improve the portability of software, and will ease problems of communication within an organization, as well as between organizations. Several of the alphabetic and graphic characters used in the text of this International Standard are common both to the representations specified and to normal typographical presentation. . . This International Standard specifies the representation of dates in the Gregorian calendar and times and representations of periods of time. It includes: (a) calendar dates expressed in terms of year, month and day of the month; (b) ordinal dates expressed in terms of year and day of the year; (c) week dates expressed in terms of year, week number and day of the week; (d) time of the day based upon the 24-hour timekeeping system; (e) differences between local time and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC); (f) combination of date and time; (g) time-intervals; (h) recurring time-intervals. This International Standard is applicable whenever dates and times are included in information interchange. This International Standard does not cover dates and times where words are used in the representation and dates and times where characters are not used in the representation. This International Standard considers the leap seconds that are occasionally inserted at the end of a calendar month to maintain astronomic precision of the calendar day. This International Standard does not assign any particular meaning or interpretation to any data element that uses representations in accordance with this International Standard. Such meaning will be determined by the context of the application." [FDIS voting begins on 2000-10-05, voting terminates on 2000-12-05.]
[CR: 20001114] [Table of Contents]
[November 14, 2000] See now "VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and X3D."
"The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) is a file format for describing interactive 3D objects and worlds. VRML is designed to be used on the Internet, intranets, and local client systems. VRML is also intended to be a universal interchange format for integrated 3D graphics and multimedia. VRML may be used in a variety of application areas such as engineering and scientific visualization, multimedia presentations, entertainment and educational titles, web pages, and shared virtual worlds." [from the Introduction, ISO spec.]
According to a recent [January 1998] WG document, the VRML-DHTML Integration Working Group is studying "a potential closer integration between VRML and DHTML, a common term for a set of evolving features and architecture extensions to HTML and Web browsers that includes cascading style sheets and document object models." The WG is exploring "the potential of future inclusion of XML functionality, expanded Web media related capabilities envisioned by SMIL and MPEG4, [and] media-rich Web enabled set top computers. . ." The WG has observed, with respect to XML: "The XML movement is one indication that a parseable, hierarchical object model will play an increasingly major role in the evolution of HTML. And the more general and powerful this object model becomes, the more meaningful it may become for related media graph structures like VRML." See below.
Note: Some would claim that VRML has nothing (quint)essential to do with SGML/XML; they are probably correct as of January 1998. However, VRML is of interest to some SGML/XML experts and users; hence this brief entry. And: see the preceding paragraph.
[Table of Contents]
"ODA is a typo" [or, variant] "might better have been called DOA" - C. Michael Sperberg McQueen and James Mason, respectively.
The Europeans think SGML is an IBM plot, and the North Americans think ODA is an ECMA plot -- Anonymous, 1989.
Conduct a literature search in a large online periodicals database. Search on the title word "oda". If the article is about "Office (Open) Document Architecture", then the author is European; if the article is about biology, then the author is North American. Truth rating: 85%. -- For you to test
- Formerly ODA was "Office Document Architecture" (ISO 8613)
- See Web page on ODA at a WordPerfect Site [May 1995]. Four overview informational documents in copies [mirrored from titan.orem.novell.com on May 1995]:
- Or possibly [March 1995]: Web Page on the ODA Consortium at a WordPerfect Site
- Prior to backing Adobe's PDF, NIST supported ODA. See Nicholas and Welsch, and the entry for the ODA SIG sponsored by NIST (entry #1466, page 216, in the SGML Technical Report cited below)
- 'ODA Master's Thesis' by Piero Mancino: "Can the Open Document Architecture (ODA) Standard Change the World of Information Technology?" Available in PostScript format or in .gz-compressed PostScript format. See the bibliographic entry, or the mirror copy (September 1995). Email: Pietro Mancino, email@example.com
- Excellent overview of ODA by Mark Walter in Seybold Report: see the bibliography entry
- ODA info from OII Standards for Document Interchange
- Other references to ODA in the associated online SGML bibliography here include documents by: Paul Ellison, Mabrouk, et al., Angela Scheller, Hugh Tucker, and Bradley Watson.
- See many other references to ODA in the printed Technical Report version of the SGML bibliography, pages 4-5.
[CR: 20010319] [Table of Contents]
See updated materials for 2001- in "STEP/EXPRESS and XML." Much of the information cited below is still fundamentally important.
- A first working draft of ISO 10303-28 has been developed by Eurostep and Monsell EDM for BSI. This is: ISO/WD 10303-28:1999(E). Product data representation and exchange: Implementation methods: XML representation of EXPRESS-driven data. Reference: ISO TC184/SC4/WG10 N285 and ISO TC184/SC4/WG11 N090, Date: 1999-10-24. This "first rough draft of part 28" specifies "the way in which XML can be used to encode both EXPRESS schemas and corresponding data." An accompanying document explaining the use of Use of Architectural Forms is also available: "Use of Architectural Forms for Early to Late Bound Mapping WG11 N91. These two documents have been sent to SOLIS as WG11/N90 and N91, and are intended to form the basis for discussion at an upcoming meeting in New Orleans. The goal of the project in this new work item is explained in the introduction to the proposed standard: "ISO 10303 is an International Standard for the computer-interpretable representation of product information and for the exchange of product data. The objective is to provide a neutral mechanism capable of describing products throughout their life cycle. This mechanism is suitable not only for neutral file exchange, but also as a basis for implementing and sharing product databases, and as a basis for archiving. This part of ISO 10303 specifies means by which data and schemas specified using the EXPRESS language (ISO 10303-11) can be encoded using XML. XML provides a basic syntax that can be used in many different ways to encode information. In this part of ISO 10303, the following uses of XML are specified: a) A late bound XML architectural Document Type Declaration (DTD) that enables any EXPRESS schema to be encoded; b) An extension to the late bound DTD to enable data corresponding to any EXPRESS schema to be encoded as XML; c) A canonical form for the late bound DTD that is derived from the architectural DTD; d) The use of SGML architectures to enable early binding XML forms to be defined that are compatible with the late binding. The use of architectures allows for different early bindings to be defined that are compatible with each other and can be processed using the architectural DTD." The Architectural Forms document (by Robin La Fontaine) "explains the basics of SGML Architectures as needed to represent the relationship between the early-bound and late-bound XML formats for Express-driven data... Given a document in XML which corresponds with a particular DTD, architectural forms provide a standard mechanism for viewing it as if it were consistent with another DTD (the meta-DTD or base architecture). This is being used within STEP to allow one or more early-bound data sets to be viewed as if they were defined in terms of the standard late-bound DTD. Thus software written against the late-bound DTD can, without modification, process data that complies with any compliant early-bound DTD. 'Compliant' here means that the early-bound DTD has the late-bound DTD as its base architecture. This gives some flexibility in defining early-bound DTDs which can be optimised for different purposes, e.g., for display, for data exchange, for compactness." Persons interested in the activity of this ISO group may contact the Nigel Shaw (Project Leader, Eurostep Limited) or Robin La Fontaine (Project Editor, Monsell EDM).
- STEP/SGML - Standard Exchange for Product Data/Standard Generalized (ISO/TC184/SC4/WG3/T14): "The STEP standard task group, Product Documentation (ISO 184/SC4/WG3/T14), is aimed at the integration of two of the most prominent and important information technologies encompassed by standards efforts. These are the areas of product data and product documentation. The results and recommendations of Working Group 3 (T14) are aimed at harmonizing the use and application of the international standards covering the following areas: ISO 10303, Standard Exchange for Product Data (STEP) which covers product data, is being developed by a broad range of industries to provide extensive support for modelling, automated storage schema generation, life-cycle support, plus many more data management facilities, [and SGML]"
- [January 12, 1999] The ISO TC 184/SC4 [Industrial data] Secretariat has issued an ISO New Work Item Ballot for "XML representation for EXPRESS-driven data." The NWI 'specifies the representation according to the syntax of Extensible Markup Language (XML) of data defined using ISO 10303-11 (the EXPRESS language) and/or for EXPRESS schemas. The mappings from the EXPRESS language to the syntax of the representation are specified. Any EXPRESS schema or schemas and the data they describe can be represented.' The current proposal 'arises out of the preliminary work item on SGML and Industrial Data (commonly refered to as 'STEP/SGML Harmonisation') and is seen as an important part of that initiative. The use of XML will enable increased flexibility with respect to future changes to EXPRESS schemas. The result of the NWI will enable the generalized use of XML and SGML tools and web browser technology with EXPRESS-driven data and schemas.' The facility would 'enable the use of the recommended syntax for data exchange on the World Wide Web to be applied to instances of EXPRESS-driven data, enable the use of the recommended syntax for data exchange on the World Wide Web to be applied to EXPRESS schemas, and enable EXPRESS schemas to be exchanged together with data instances they describe.'
- Preliminary Work Item Proposal: SGML and Industrial Data. ISO TC184/SC4/WG10 Architecture N112. June 1997. "The SGML family of standards is highly important in the publications domain. The SC4 family of standards is set up to enable the exchange and sharing of product and product related information. Product documentation obviously belongs into both worlds. This project will investigate ways to increase the interoperability between both families of standards for the benefit of product definition, product documentation, and beyond."
- Daniel Rivers-Moore (Director of New Technologies, RivCom, and Joint Project Leader of the ISO Preliminary Work Item on SGML and Industrial Data) presented a paper on XML and EXPRESS as Schema Definition Languages at the MetaStructures 1998 Conference (August 17 - 19, 1998. Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montréal, Québec, Canada). [local archive copy]
- [June 21, 1999] A communiqué from William C. Burkett (Product Data Integration Technologies, Inc., P.D.I.T.) reports on the development of a small XML tool called 'FirstSTEP EXML' that is being made available to the product data exchange/XML community. FirstSTEP EXML is a software tool which may be used to to convert an EXPRESS schema into an equivalent XML DTD. The conversion algorithm is faithful to the semantics and structure of the EXPRESS language and, as a result, is very literal in the way that the EXPRESS entity declarations map to the DTD element declarations. P.D.I.T. is providing this tool free-of-charge to anyone interested in experimenting with EXPRESS schemas and XML DTDs. Bill Burkett writes: "As a data encoding language, XML is a very flexible and 'Internet-friendly', but it lacks many of the semantic features that data management professionals expect and applications require to ensure data semantics and integrity. Therefore, the PDI project adopted EXPRESS (ISO 10303-11) as the data specification language that governs the semantics of data exchanged with an XML encoding; see http://www.epmtech.jotne.com/learn/ or http://www.nist.gov/sc4/tools/express/etools98.htm. This necessitated a mapping from EXPRESS to XML DTD." The background to this work: "P.D.I.T. is the principle contractor for a program called Product Data Interoperability (PDI), an initiative sponsored by JECPO (Joint Electronic Commerce Program Office), and supported by USAF (U.S. Air Force), and DLA (Defense Logistics Agency). The objective of PDI is to demonstrate a prototype XML-based data exchange between different commercial Product Data Management (PDM) systems. This data exchange will effected with an XML vocabulary known as Product Data Markup Language (PDML). PDML is based on a international product data exchange standard known as STEP (STandard for the Exchange of Product model data - ISO 10303), on which, see http://www.ukcic.org/step/step.htm or http://www.nist.gov/sc4/www/stepdocs.htm." Comments, questions, and feedback on FirstSTEP EXML may be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org.
- ISO NWI Revised Ballot Results. XML representation for EXPRESS-driven data From: ISO Technical Committee 184: Industrial automation systems and integration, Subcommittee 4: Industrial data. [local archive copy]
- [April 16, 1999] XML and STEP study notes. By Ann M. Wrightson (Senior Lecturer in Information Systems, University of Huddersfield). These materials are part of a collection of 'XML study notes' prepared for postgraduate students upport class-based and independent study at the School of Computing and Mathematics at the University of Huddersfield. [local archive copy]
- [August 20, 1998] "XML for STEP." In OASIS@Work: Summer Workshop 1998 Newsletter, edited by Kathryn Holman (Crane Softwrights) and Carol Geyer (OASIS), reporting on the OASIS Summer Workshop, July 29-31, 1998 Newsletter. [URL probably bad, broken link; try this or cache/partial, also cache from Wayback.]
- June 07, 1998] Update - see abstract for STEP and SGML, by Daniel Rivers-Moore (RivCom) and Peter Bergström (EuroSTEP), presented at SGML Sverige 98. Slides (HTML) also.
- Configuration Control for Product Documentation: A Way of Integrating STEP & SGML, by Reiner Reschke and Hugh Tucker; see also the ftp://ftp.eccnet.com/pub/step/whitep-4.zip
- STEP - SGML ISO/TC184/SC4/WG3/T14 mailing list
- [December 08, 1998] STEP's EXPRESS Data Modeling Language - Update on the ISO TC184/SC4 work toward "STEP and SGML Harmonization" work, really "STEP <-> grove". From Eliot Kimber.
- Bibliographic entry for Technical Report by Lisa Phillips and Joshua Lubell "An SGML Environment for STEP"
- Bibliographic entry for Technical Report by Joshua Lubell, "The Application Protocol Information Base World Wide Gateway"
- ISO/TC184/SC4/WG3/T14, Standing document H "technical requirements needed for the co-existence of product documentation produced in SGML-compliant environments and product data produced in STEP-compliant environments"
- STEP: ISO 10303 Standard for the Exchange of Product Data (STEP)
- STEP and SGML White Paper: "Interoperability between STEP and SGML" from SwedCALS [mirror copy, partial text only]; or [mirror copy in Postscript]
- The STEP Project - ISO TC184/SC4
- STEP Home Page, Ikeda Lab.
- STEP, SGML and the Internet (October 6, 1996 - Toronto, Ontario), Tutorial Presentations. Presentations: (1) CALS, SGML, STEP and the Internet,Candian Department of National Defense CALS Program, presented by Joe Gollner; (2) STEP/SGML Harmonization, presented by Nigel Shaw, EuroSTEP; (3) T14, STEP/SGML Harmonization, presented by Hugh Tucker, Documenta
- The STEP Project - NIST
- Application Protocol Development Environment (APDE), NIST ["The APDE integrates STEP-specific tools with an SGML environment for accessing information in existing STEP documentation and authoring new documents. Document Type Definitions (DTDs) have been developed for STEP Application Protocols and Integrated Resources and are being used in this SGML environment."]
- NIST UoF Repository
- STEP Conformance Testing Project
- SGML DTDs for STEP (NIST STEP Gopher: contact is Lisa Phillips, email: email@example.com, telephone: 301-975-5021)
- README file for DTDS subdirectory on SOLIS (February 1996), [mirror copy] [README file for the STEP/SOLIS DTDs [October 1995]]
- DTDs (February 01, 1996); [mirror copy]
- STEPIR DTD gopher://elib.cme.nist.gov/00/step/sgml/stepir.dtd OR [local mirror copy, and STEP DTD Readme File]
- STEP On-Line Infomation Service (SOLIS) from NIST, ftp://ftp.cme.nist.gov/pub/step
- STEP DTDs: "As part of the Application Protocol Development Environment (APDE), NIST is developing SGML document type definitions (DTDs) for STEP (ISO 10303) documents." [ftp://ftp.cme.nist.gov/pub/step/sgml]
- Metastructures 1998 Presentation. W. Eliot Kimber (ISOGEN International) - "STEP/EXPRESS as XML; XML as STEP/EXPRESS."
- Metastructures 1998 Presentation. Daniel Rivers-Moore (Rivcom) - "An XML Representation of EXPRESS-driven data."
- Metastructures 1998 Presentation. David M. Price (IBM Advanced Manufacturing Solutions) - "The STEP Data Integration Architecture Activity."
- See the details for two NIST-sponsored discussion groups on STEP and SGML: sgml-step-docs and express-sgml.
- [September 01, 1998] Eliot Kimber (ISOGEN International Corp) has authored a paper The SGML Storage Model which may be of assistance to readers who wish to understand more about the SGML entity as an abstract storage object, and how storage managers interface with an entity manager, a parser, and a processing application. The paper was written in the context of ongoing work toward SGML and STEP harmonization, but its discussion of formal system identifiers and storage models should be of wider interest. ". . .all SGML systems consist, in one way or another, of the same layers. At the bottom are the physical storage managers, the systems that actually manage data on storage media (file systems, database, etc.). Above the storage managers is the entity manager layer. Above the entity manager is the SGML parser and any processing applications. Processing applications talk to the SGML parser to get parsed SGML documents and to the entity manager directly to get data entities. . . [Conclusion:] SGML abstract storage model and entity declaration syntax coupled with the Formal System Identifier facility of ISO/IEC 10744:1997 provides a robust mechanism for representing systems of repositories and storage objects, regardless of their data types." [local archive copy]
- Early materials from NIST, STEP-SGML as new work item. (1) Material related to the NWI on XML representation; (2) EXPRESS for SGML property set; (3) Meeting minutes from San Fransisco; (4) "Formal Data Models for SGML and HyTime", by Eliot Kimber and Peter Bergström, at SGML/XML Sweden, March 1999. Formal Data Models, IEEE version. [cache for data models, NWI materials, propset]
[CR: 19990414] [Table of Contents]
The CGM (Computer Graphics Metafile) standard is an "international standard for the open interchange of structured graphical objects and their associated attributes." It is defined in ISO 8632:1992 together with Amendments 1 and 2, and specifies a two-dimensional data interchange standard which allows graphical data to be stored and exchanged among graphics devices, applications, and computer systems in a device-independent manner. It is a revisable, structured format that can represent vector graphics (e.g., polylines, ellipses, NURBS), raster graphics, and text. Although initially a vector graphics format, it has been extended in three upwardly compatible extensions to include raster capabilities and provides a very useful format for combined raster and vector images. A metafile is a collection of elements. These elements may be the geometric components of the picture, such as polyline or polygon. They may be details of the appearance of these components, such as line colour. They may be information to the interpreter about how to interpret a particular metafile or a particular picture. The CGM standard specifies which elements are allowed to occur in which positions in a metafile." [adapted from NIST]
Historically, CGM has been a preferred graphics standard in government and industry applications of SGML and ODA (e.g., CALS defense, ATA aviation, J2008 automotive, petrochemical). SGML Notations have been proposed for the various parts of the ISO standard; see The SGML Handbook (536-537) for ISO 8879 Annex E2, and PDTR 9573-9 Information Processing -- Text and office systems -- Using SGML Public Identifiers for Specifying Data Notations (ISO/IEC JTC1/WG4 N1958, December 5, 1997).
More recently, CGM has become of interest to W3C researchers (W3C Activity: Web Graphics) and commercial vendors (CGM Open Initiative) for its use on the Internet. Ongoing collaborative work between the W3C and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory has explored the "use of CGM on the Web, including integration of a CGM plug-in into Amaya (using the OBJECT tag), supported by a W3C technical NOTE on inline CGM proposing ways to increase interoperability and performance for inline CGM. This work continues as part of the W3C-LA initiative, in cooperation with SGML Open." In September 1997 at a Springfield ATA - TICC meeting, a number of CGM vendors and users met to discuss CGM interoperability issues and ". . . generally agreed that the use of the CGM standard as well as products and technology based on CGM are poised for potentially rapid growth." Thus, it has been proposed that "a CGM Open profile for Web-based graphics should be written. . .simple (e.g., perhaps at about the level of SVF), so that it is easy and reliable to implement. . .In order to better harmonize CGM with other emerging standards such as XML, it might be possible to develop a new encoding for CGM which could easily be parsed by (for example, an XML parser)."
[August 20, 1998] An effort toward "SGML/CGM Harmonization" is being promoted by OASIS, as reflected in the OASIS@Work - Summer Workshop 1998 Newsletter.
There are also several CGM application profiles. "An application profile (AP) defines the options, elements, and parameters of ISO 8632 necessary to accomplish a particular function and maximize the probability of interchange between systems implementing the profile. Profiles are defined by application constituencies who agree to adhere to the same subset of CGM for the purpose of graphical data interchange using ISO 8632" [from NIST]. Examples: The Model Profile [CGM encodings at the CGM Version 3 functionality level, in Amendment 1], The ATA Profile [Specification 2100, Air Transport Association], The CALS profile [MIL-D-28003A], The PIP profile [for petrotechnical applications], The EWOS CGM ISPs, with 4 functionality levels. Provisionally: DISP 12071-1 Basic Scientific and Technical; DISP 12071-2 Advanced Scientific and Technical; DISP 12071-3 Basic Presentation and Visualisation (Model Profile); DISP 12071-4 Advanced Presentation and Visualisation). In addition to these four internationally standardized profiles, CGM has been accepted as a MIME data type.
The ISO standard has four parts and two amendments: ISO/IEC 8632.1:1992 (Part 1: Functional Specification); ISO/IEC 8632.2:1992 (Part 2: Character Encoding); ISO/IEC 8632.3:1992 (Part 3: Binary Encoding); ISO/IEC 8632.4:1992 (Part 4: Clear Text Encoding); ISO/IEC 8632:1992/Amd.1:  (Amendment 1: Rules for profiles, parts 1-4); ISO/IEC 8632:1992/Amd.2 (Amendment 2: Application structuring extensions, parts 1-4). The ANSI Standard - ANSI/ISO 8632.1-4:1992  is identical to the ISO.
In addition to the bibliographic references to the ISO, ANSI, and FIPS standards documents (ad loc), note the books by: (1) Lofton R. Henderson and Anne M. Mumford, The CGM Handbook; (2) Lofton R. Henderson and Anne M. Mumford, The Computer Graphics Metafile; and (3) David B. Arnold and Peter R. Bono, CGM and CGI. Metafile and Interface Standards for Computer Graphics; see also (4) the reference list in the W3C NOTE edited by Chris Lilley.
[January 21, 1999] A W3C press release announced that "The World Wide Web Consortium Issues WebCGM Profile as a W3C Recommendation. Interoperability for Industrial-strength CGM Graphics." References: REC-WebCGM-19990121, W3C Recommendation, 21 January 1999. The authors include David Cruikshank (The Boeing Company), John Gebhardt (Intercap Graphics Systems), Lofton Henderson (Inso Corporation), Roy Platon (CCLRC), and Dieter Weidenbrück (ITEDO/IsoDraw). As part of the W3C Graphics Activity, the WebCGM Profile 'reflects cross-industry agreement on an interoperable way to exchange dynamic, hyperlinked Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) files over the Web.' "Key industry players - members of CGM Open, W3C, or both - brought their expertise to the design of this profile: ArborText, Auto-trol Technologies, Aerospatiale, Bentley Systems, The Boeing Company, CCLRC, Inso Corporation, Intercap Graphics Systems, ITEDO/IsoDraw, Jeppesen Inc, Larson Software Technology, NIST, System Development Inc, Xerox Corporation, and Zeh Graphic Systems. The work was also supported by the European Commission's Esprit Project and undertaken in liaison with ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC24, the ISO working group which developed the CGM specification. The Recommendation provides a "formal specification of the content model of the CGM Version 4 functionality of WebCGM - the 'Intelligence' content. XML has been chosen as the specification language for the content model of the CGM, as validating parsers are widely available which could be adapted to perform content validation checking against WebCGM instances (either via modification of the readers, or via transformation of the intelligent content of WebCGM instance)." The WebCGM Profile also "allows hyperlinks within multiple pictures in a document, links to close-up views of parts of a picture, and links from CGM to an HTML document, including a frame in a frameset. Links can have multiple destinations - for example, the wing of an aircraft could link to structural diagrams, wiring schematics, test results and parts lists; [its hyperlinking] follows the W3C Xlink design principles and is conformant with the RFC 1738 and RFC 1808 specifications used for all URLs (Web addresses)." See also the testimonials for the W3C Recommendation.
[November 06, 1998] An updated version of the WebCGM Profile was submitted to the W3C (and announced on November 06, 1998) by The Boeing Company, the Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils (CCLRC), Inso Corporation, Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), and Xerox Corporation. Principal authors of the document are David Cruikshank (The Boeing Company), John Gebhardt (Intercap Graphics Systems), Lofton Henderson (Inso Corporation), and Roy Platon (CCLRC). See below. [local archive copy]
[September 07, 1998] The World Wide Web Consortium acknowledged the submission of a NOTE on WebCGM, "WebCGM Profile -- A Web Profile of CGM." The submission comes jointly from The Boeing Company, Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils (CCLRC), Inso Corporation, Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), and Xerox Corporation. Authors are: David Cruikshank (The Boeing Company), John Gebhardt (Intercap Graphics Systems), Lofton Henderson (Inso Corporation), Roy Platon (CCLRC), and Dieter Weidenbrueck (ITEDO/IsoDraw). Abstract: "CGM (Computer Graphics Metafile) has been an ISO standard for vector and composite vector/raster picture definition since 1987. It has been a registered MIME type since 1995. CGM has a significant following in technical illustration, electronic documentation, geophysical data visualization, amongst other application areas. WebCGM is a profile for the effective application of CGM in Web electronic documents. WebCGM has been a joint effort of the CGM Open Consortium, of which a number of we submitters are active members and contributors, in collaboration with W3C staff under the W3C-LA project. It represents an important interoperability agreement amongst major users and implementors of CGM, and thereby unifies current diverse approaches to CGM utilization in Web document applications. WebCGM's clear and unambiguous conformance requirements will enhance interoperability of implementations, and it should be possible to leverage existing CGM validation tools, test suites, and the product certification testing services for application to WebCGM. While WebCGM is a binary file format and is not "stylable", nevertheless WebCGM follows published W3C requirements for a scalable graphics format where such are applicable. The design criteria for the graphical content of WebCGM aimed at a balance between graphical expressive power on the one hand, and simplicity and implementability on the other. A small but powerful set of metadata elements is standardized in WebCGM, to support the functionalities of: hyperlinking and document navigation; picture structuring and layering; and, search and query on WebCGM picture content." As clarified in the Comment on WebCGM Submission by Chris Lilley, "This submission does not define a new format, but improves interoperability between implementations of an existing format." [WebCGM docs package]
- The Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) - Advisory Group on Computer Graphics
- [August 27, 1998] "CGM Open Formation Announced." - "The CGM Open Consortium, an organization of users and vendors of CGM software tools, was incorporated recently in the state of Delaware . . ."
- CGM Open Initiative Home Page, [doc archive]
- CGM Open Statement to SGML Open; [local archive copy]
- [April 14, 1999] "WebCGM: Industrial-Strength Vector Graphics for the Web." By By John C. Gebhardt (InterCAP Graphics Systems) and Lofton Henderson (Inso Corporation). An OASIS / CGM Open White Paper. April 1999. "For years, companies, industry groups, and government organizations have used Computer Graphics Metafiles (CGMs) for storing and exchanging 2D graphics. CGM is a format defined by the International standard ISO/IEC 8632:1992 for digitally describing vector, raster, and hybrid (raster and vector) graphic pictures very compactly. It has proven to be a very good format for the technical illustrations in electronic documentation, geophysical data visualization, and other demanding 2-dimensional graphics presentation applications. [local archive copy]
- Use of CGM as a Scalable Graphics Format - from W3C, by Roy Platon and Chris Lilley. [local archive copy]
- W3C Scalable Graphics Requirements
- NIST support for Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM)
- [November 27, 1998] "CGM Open Joins OASIS. International XML/SGML Consortium Expands to Include Web Graphics Standard." - "CGM Open is a non-profit group dedicated to accelerating the further adoption, application, and implementation of the Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM), the international standard for open interchange of structured graphical objects and their associated attributes. CGM Open is working with OASIS to integrate CGM and SGML/XML."
- Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) - CGM Interpreter Test Suites from NIST ITL, release 2.0
- STANDARDS for CGM, [local archive copy]
- CGM as FIPS PUB 128-2 (1996 April 17); [local archive copy]
- Computer Graphics Metafile and MIME; see the registration information
- Vector Graphic Interchange Standards: CGM - Info from OII
- MIL-STD-2301 CGM - Overview and links
- MS Windows support - Quick View Plus 4.5, and ImageStream
- Henderson Software, Inc. (HSI) - CGM support
- IsoDraw - Free personal-use CGM Viewer for download [June 1998]. See the promo message.
- InterCAP AcitveCGM See a product description, June 1998.
- RALCGM - program to interpret Computer Graphics Metafiles. Written by staff at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.
- ATC Graphics Development Tools
- Square One The Graphics Connection - converts a PostScript file into industry-standard graphic formats - including editable vector formats such as WMF, MIF and CGM.
- CGM-seminarium 1997 (Thomas Faleij, Fredrik Bjurle, Sigrid Weidenbrück)
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