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Created: July 03, 2007.
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Major Revision of Massachusetts Enterprise Technical Reference Model (ETRM).


Update 2007-08-01: According to a published "Statement on ETRM v4.0 Public Review Comments," the U.S. Commonwealth of Massachusetts Information Technology Division (ITD) announced a Final Version 4.0 release of the Enterprise Technical Reference Model (ETRM), effective of August 1, 2007. Both Ecma-376 Office Open XML and OASIS OpenDocument Format for Office Applications (Open Document) are named as "Open Formats" within this model, along with plain text and HTML. See the text of the ITD statement.

[July 03, 2007] The U.S. Commonwealth of Massachusetts Information Technology Division (ITD) announced a new major release of the Enterprise Technical Reference Model (ETRM). The ETRM Version 4.0 Introduction identifies four additional and updated specifications now included in the 'Summary of Technology Specifications' table. Newly added specifications include "WS-I Basic Security Profile v. 1.0" and "Ecma 376 - Office Open XML Formats (Open XML)". Specification updates are listed for "OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) v. 1.1" and W3C "XPath v. 2.0".

The ITD Enterprise Technical Reference Model (ETRM) "provides an architectural framework used to identify the standards, specifications and technologies that support the Commonwealth's computing environment. The ETRM uses the concepts of Domains, Disciplines, Technology Areas and Technology Specifications to define the enterprise architecture. This framework borrows from the National Association of State Chief Information Officers (NASCIO) Enterprise Architecture Tool Kit as well as the work done by the federal government's Federal Enterprise Architecture Program. Implementation of the ETRM will result in a Service Oriented Architecture for the Commonwealth that uses open standards solutions where appropriate and industry interoperability best practices to construct and deliver online government services. Agencies are expected to migrate towards compliance with the ETRM as they consider new information technology investments or make major enhancements/replacement to existing systems."

The addition of "Ecma-376 Office Open XML File Formats (Open XML)" as an "Open Format" represents a significant change in ETRM Version 4.0. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts "defines open formats as specifications for data file formats that are based on an underlying open standard, developed by an open community, affirmed and maintained by a standards body and are fully documented and publicly available." ETRM now classifies four (4) formats as "Open Formats": (1) OASIS Open Document Format For Office Applications (OpenDocument) v. 1.1; (2) Ecma-376 Office Open XML Formats (Open XML); (3) Hypertext Document Format v. 4.01; (4) Plain Text Format.

The data formats Roadmap notes that "Information that traditionally has been presented in text form is increasingly being enriched through the use of multimedia data types such as graphics, audio and video. The variety of data formats used however raises concerns regarding interoperability and accessibility. Given that XML is the cornerstone of the Commonwealth's Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) vision of a unified enterprise information environment, it is crucial that the schema used to create XML files meet the open format definition as well. The target state is the ubiquitous use of open formats to capture and store data within applications and in individual data files."

The Information Domain Roadmap further affirms that "XML is just beginning to be used by agencies to create XML-aware applications. The portal content management solution uses XML to separate content from presentation. The Enterprise Open Standards policy requires compliance with open standards for prospective IT acquisitions however government records are currently captured in a variety of proprietary and open formats. The target state includes the ubiquitous use of XML for Data Interoperability in application development and content management as well as the use of open formats for displaying and storing data files."

Whereas ETRM Version 3.6 and earlier versions omitted reference to OOXML as an "Open Format", ETRM Version 4.0 now provides the following description:

Technology Specification: ECMA-376 Office Open XML File Formats (Open XML)

Description: The Ecma-376 Office Open XML File Formats (Open XML) is another standardized XML-based file format specification suitable for office applications. It covers the features required by text, spreadsheets, charts, and graphical documents. The specification has been approved by Ecma International as an open standard. This XML-based document format was developed to ensure the highest levels of fidelity with legacy documents created in proprietary Microsoft Office binary document formats such as .doc, .xls, and .ppt.

Guidelines: The Open XML format may be used for office documents such as text documents (.docx), spreadsheets (.xlsx), and presentations (.pptx). The Open XML format is currently supported by a variety of office applications including Microsoft Office 2007, OpenOffice Novell Edition, and NeoOffice 2.1. Corel has announced Open XML support for WordPerfect 2007. In addition, the Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack enables older versions of Microsoft Office such as Office 2003, XP and 2000, to translate documents to and from Open XML Format for text, presentation and spreadsheet documents.

Standards and Specifications: Ecma-376 Office Open XML File Formats (Open XML) - Defines an XML schema for office applications and its semantics. The schema is suitable for office documents, including text documents, spreadsheets, charts and graphical documents like drawings and presentations, but is not restricted to these kinds of documents.

Migration: All agencies are expected to migrate away from proprietary, binary office document formats to open, XML-based office document formats. Microsoft Office 2003, currently deployed in the majority of agencies, will support the Open XML format through the use of the Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack (Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack for Word, Excel, and PowerPoint 2007 File Formats) available at no cost from the Microsoft web site. Note: Agencies will have the ability to use either ODF or Open XML with their current version of Microsoft Office by installing the SUN converter along with the Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack.

ETRM's Information Domain addresses standards and guidelines for data interoperability, data management, data formats, and records management. "Data Formats" are categorized as "Open Formats" and "Other Acceptable Formats." The "Other Acceptable Formats Technology Area" addresses de facto formats and specifications for the presentation of data as text, numbers, maps, graphics, video and audio that are also acceptable for use with official records of the Commonwealth. These formats, while not affirmed by a standards body, meet the other criteria of openness and are therefore considered acceptable at this time." Both PDF v. 1.6 and RTF v. 1.7 are named as "Other Acceptable Formats." ETRM also notes that "The PDF specification has been submitted to ISO by AIIM for consideration as an international standard." [Apropos of which, Ecma International has created Technical Committee 46 (TC46) to produce a formal standard for an XML-based electronic paper format and XML-based page description language which is consistent with existing implementations of the format called the XML Paper Specification (XPS)."]

ETRM Version 4.0 provides a new document on the Management Domain, which "focuses on the administration and management of Commonwealth Services, by configuring, tracking, reporting and analyzing actual service deployment and performance to established expectations. The Management Domain identifies standards and technologies to enable the bringing together of different service management concepts using SOA, from the management of traditional IT infrastructures to the management of SOA services."

The ETRM Management Domain document notes that "Two separate and overlapping management standards have emerged from both the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) and the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF): Web Services Distributed Management (WSDM) and WS-Management, respectively. There are industry efforts underway to harmonize the two standards and even possibly collaborate towards the development of a single one. The current version of the ETRM limits itself to providing an overview of the Management Domain, without identifying specific standards at this time. Future updates to the Management Domain will identify standards and technologies that not only enable the required sets of controls and visibility, such as the use of executive dashboards, to manage web services but also to use SOA in a broader, holistic context that bridges traditional IT systems management and business processes."

The ETRM Version 4.0 "Introduction" now consolidates detailed information about "Referenced Standards Organizations"; the individual Domain documents now contain only URI references to the organizations. From the Standard Organizations listed in alphabetical order:

ETRM Version 4.0 provides a new Introduction section describing the process of designating standards and specifications as Enterprise Standards. It documents the decision process used "to determine when standards should be recommended for adoption or deferred for review at a later date. Recommended revisions and additions to Enterprise Standards are presented to the EAC for discussion and consideration. Enterprise Standards recommended by the Enterprise Architecture Council (EAC) are then put through an internal and public review process before being designated by the CIO as Enterprise Standards for Executive Department agencies." In this section, an Open Standards" are defined as "Specifications for systems that are publicly available and are developed by an open community and affirmed by a standards body. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is an example of an open standard. Open standards imply that multiple vendors can compete directly based on the features and performance of their products. It also implies that the existing information technology solution is portable and that it can be removed and replaced with that of another vendor with minimal effort and without major interruption."

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Information Technology Division is soliciting public comment on the ETRM Version 4.0 Public Review Draft from July 2, 2007 through July 20, 2007. Comments should be submitted to ETRM Version 4.0 updates content published in version 3.6, introduces the new Management Domain, enhances the ETRM's format for accessibility and usability, and provides additions and updates to existing language and technical specifications. Changes that are more substantive in nature, beyond basic corrections and formatting, have been highlighted in yellow for ease of reviewing in the RTF versions of the documents; this highlighting is not shown in the HTML versions.

ETRM Information Domain

Excerpt from the Information Domain document:

A process-independent, enterprise view of government information enables data sharing where appropriate within the bounds of security and privacy considerations. Service oriented architectures promote information and service reuse through open standards.

To help the Commonwealth achieve the enormous benefits of information and service reuse, the Information Domain emphasizes standards for data interoperability among diverse internal and external platforms and applications. By promoting the ubiquitous use of XML standards, the ETRM specifications insure that all new development initiatives result in interoperable services that can be reused across the enterprise, as well as with external business partners and governments where appropriate.

Given the level of complexity of integration projects, especially with multiple developers and teams collaborating on the development of services, data models should be explicitly visible to all architects, developers, and project managers as a coherent set of XML schemas, in a Commonwealth Registry, and service development should be driven by those schemas.

Initiatives such as Homeland Security rely upon all parties adhering to Community of Interest XML specifications, defined by open standards bodies comprised of representatives from Government, Business and Technology Communities. Open formats for data files ensure that government records remain independent of underlying systems and applications thereby preserving their accessibility over very long periods of time.

Data Interoperability

One of the most critical SOA decisions for the Commonwealth is the adoption of XML as the primary standard for Data Interoperability. XML has become the lingua franca of application integration, facilitating application interoperability, regardless of platform or programming language. The adoption of XML is the cornerstone of the Commonwealth's Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) vision of a unified enterprise information environment.

Agencies should consider the use of XML for all projects, and should implement XML, unless there are compelling business reasons not to do so. XML should always be considered when undertaking new work or when beginning a major overhaul of an existing system. Agencies should always consider the fact that an XML solution will result in greater long-term benefits for the agency and the enterprise as a whole.

Data Management

Agencies need to share information visibility across the Commonwealth, regardless of how far along they are in their plans to implement a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). Without visibility into the workings of the systems, applications, and other elements of their IT infrastructure, agencies are unable to manage or improve their IT environment, eliminate stove pipes, and most importantly, meet their business requirements.

A key to the enterprise visibility issue is metadata: information about shared services. To provide adequate IT visibility, agencies must follow basic metadata best practices for discovering and organizing metadata, encapsulating business logic in metadata, managing with metadata, and modeling with metadata.

A significantly underused mechanism for working with Web services is the services metadata repository. At present, these repositories primarily store only the interfaces for services. However, for Web services to be supportive of fusion, additional metadata is necessary. Service metadata includes sequencing information to properly order service execution, parameters and exception handling information for the process model, and data to manage services into usable assemblies. Content metadata, such as user interface elements, and the connection of Web services to multiple portlets must be stored in metadata to allow modification of the system without code changes. For Services to be searchable across applications they must be versioned and represent processes that are independent of a single-application model.

Data Formats

The Data Formats Discipline addresses the acceptable formats in which data can be presented and captured. Data formats for the long term conservation of files will be addressed in the Records Management Discipline.

Information can be captured and exposed via a variety of data types. For example, information can be captured as text, numbers, maps, graphics, video and audio. The software used to create data files stores these files in different data formats. These formats can be proprietary and therefore controlled and supported by just one software developer. Formats can also be non-proprietary or open. The Commonwealth defines open formats as specifications for data file formats that are based on an underlying open standard, developed by an open community, affirmed and maintained by a standards body and are fully documented and publicly available. It is the policy of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts that all official records of the Commonwealth be created and saved in an acceptable format..."

Management Domain

Excerpt from the new (ETRM v4.0) Management Domain document:

Management Standards provide the opportunity for the Commonwealth to deploy consistent management policies and processes across distributed and heterogeneous IT environments. By streamlining and consolidating management of both traditional IT services and SOA services the Commonwealth agencies will gain increased visibility and control over all types of Commonwealth Services, monitoring and improving business performance...

Commonwealth Services encompass different types, including:

  • Shared services which include traditional IT services such as shared email and print services, as well as SOA infrastructure services such as XML Gateway and Enterprise Service Bus
  • Business services that provide department and agency business tools such as HR/CMS
  • Loosely-coupled services such as web services, which provide access to granular software components, such as credit card authorization services

The Management Domain identifies standards and technologies to enable the bringing together of different service management concepts using SOA, from the management of traditional IT infrastructures to the management of SOA services.

Whenever a service is created, a relationship is built between service consumers and providers. Expectations of quality of service (QoS) delivery are formalized in Service Level Agreements (SLAs) and Service Level Objectives (SLOs). These SLAs/SLOs establish the acceptable performance criteria for service providers, as well as expectations of use by the service consumers, such as security constraints.

The Commonwealth has and will continue to specify Governance Policies that establish acceptable service deployment criteria, including but not limited to Governance Policies for security, accessibility, and interoperability. Adherence to Commonwealth Governance Policies constitutes a key Service Level Objective and should be of great concern for any service level management implementation.

ETRM Version 4.0 Overview

"The Commonwealth is transitioning from siloed, application centric and agency centric information technology investments to an enterprise approach where applications are designed to be flexible, to take advantage of shared and reusable components, to facilitate the sharing and reuse of data where appropriate and to make the best use of the technology infrastructure that is available. The technology specifications and standards detailed in this document are required to achieve the desired target state of a Service Oriented Architecture. These specifications and standards are required for all new IT investments.

Implementation of the ETRM will result in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) for the Commonwealth that uses open standards solutions where appropriate and industry interoperability best practices to construct and deliver online government services. Agencies are expected to migrate towards compliance with the ETRM as they consider new information technology investments or make major enhancements/replacement to existing systems...

The ETRM specifies standards, specifications and technologies for each layer or area of the Service Oriented Architecture. For ease of reference, each area and its various components are organized into the following building blocks:

  • Domains: Logical groupings of Disciplines that form the main building blocks within the technical architecture
  • Disciplines: Logical functional areas addressed within each domain as part of the architecture documentation
  • Technology Areas: Technical topics that are relevant to each Discipline
  • Technology Specifications: Sets of product standards, protocols, specifications or configurations associated with each Technology Area"

Principal ETRM Version 4.0 Documents

  • Major Revisions for ETRM v.4.0. Also RTF.

  • Introduction (ETRM v4.0). Also in RTF.

  • Access & Delivery Domain (ETRM v4.0). The Access and Delivery Domain addresses how information, transactions and services are delivered to and accessed by the Commonwealth's constituents and business partners. Also RTF.

  • Information Domain (ETRM v4.0). The Information Domain addresses standards and guidelines for Data Interoperability, Data Management, Data Formats and Records Management. Also RTF.

  • Application Domain (ETRM v4.0). The Application Domain defines how service oriented applications are designed and developed and identifies open standards to facilitate rapid service oriented development, integration and implementation of new applications and business processes. Also RTF.

  • Integration Domain (ETRM v4.0). The Integration Domain addresses how information, transactions, security, systems management and Business Services are integrated across intra-enterprise entities, e.g., agencies, as well as extra-enterprise entities, e.g., business partners. Also RTF.

  • Management Domain (ETRM v4.0). The Management Domain introduces service management concepts using SOA, from the management of traditional IT infrastructures to the management of SOA services. Also RTF.

  • Security Domain (ETRM v4.0). The Security Domain addresses the approach, methodology and technology components necessary to provide the appropriate level of protection for the information assets of the Commonwealth, its constituents and business partners. Also RTF.

Commentary on ETRM Version 4.0

  • [July 2, 2007] "Massachusetts adds Open XML to open formats list." By Elizabeth Montalbano. From MacWorld (July 2, 2007). "... The current 4.0 version of the state's Enterprise Technical Reference Model (ETRM) — a framework defining where standards will be used and which ones are permissible — lists Ecma-376 Office Open XML Formats (Open XML) as an acceptable open format. The state is adding Open XML to a short list that also includes OASIS Open Document Format For Office Applications (ODF) v. 1.1, the current version of the rival standard supported by IBM, Sun Microsystems and others. Bethann Pepoli, acting CIO for Massachusetts, said Monday that Open XML was added to the list because it now meets the commonwealth's criteria for an open standard, which requires that formats 'are publicly available and are developed by an open community and affirmed by a standards body.' Massachusetts has been releasing a revision to the ETRM every six months, and in December when the last version was released Open XML had only recently been approved by Ecma and did not have the required industry support.."

  • [July 2, 2007] "Microsoft Document Formats Gain Mass. Favor." By Martin LaMonica. From CNET (July 2, 2007). "Massachusetts has proposed changing its standards policy to make room for Microsoft Office document formats. The state's Information Technology Division on Monday posted a draft proposal, part of a periodic revision to its overall technical architecture, to its Web site where it will be under review until July 20, 2007... Massachusetts caused a stir among governments and the technology industry nearly two years ago when it mandated the use of "open formats" in desktop applications. At that time, only OpenDocument Format, or ODF, met the state IT department's definition of an open standard, which was not supported in Microsoft Office. Since then, however, Microsoft has submitted its Open XML file formats to Ecma, where they were certified as a standard. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which holds significant weight with governments around the world, is currently weighing whether to accept Office Open XML as a standard... According to its latest policy proposal, Massachusetts' state agencies can now use applications that comply with Open XML file formats as well as ODF, PDF and other accepted standards."

  • [July 02 2007] "Massachusetts May Adopt OOXML - What Say You? By Andy Updegrove. ConsortiumInfo Blog. "The Massachusetts Information Technology Division (ITD), the state agency that effectively launched the voyage of ODF around the world in August of 2005, has released a new version of its Enterprise Technical Reference Model. And this new draft includes Microsoft's OOXML formats as an acceptable "open format." The new draft was posted today here, and the very brief comment period will end on July 20... The announcement is not a surprise to me, as I've been following the progress of the ITD's internal reviews over the past six months. I've not been commenting on this publicly in order to try to give Bethann Pepoli (once again the interim CTO, since the departure of Louis Gutierrez) and her team the space to do their internal evaluations with less pressure than Peter Quinn experienced the first time around..."

  • [July 02, 2007] "Open XML: Denmark, now Massachusetts." Jason Matusow. Blog. "Massachusetts is now in a public review period of their updated ETRM policy that moves Ecma Open XML to the list of approved standards. This comes shortly after Denmark stated that Ecma Open XML meets their needs as an open standard as well... In the same policy, Massachusetts recognizes OpenDocument Format (ODF) 1.1 from OASIS. From OASIS, not ISO/IEC JTC-1. In other words, they want to make use of the most up to date, best value-for money solutions provided that the level of openness they are looking to have is met. They are explicit in their desire to use translation for interoperability between ODF and Open XML. They are also interested in seeing ASCII Text remain viable as well as PDF for state agency use. Interop of doc formats is a reality today and will only continue to improve over time. The choices available to any organization around doc formats is more interesting today due to the push for openness that began many years ago. I think this is a really positive development..."

  • [July 2, 2007] "Mass. Opens the Door to Microsoft in Office Formats Battle." By W. David Gardner. From InformationWeek (July 2, 2007). "The Massachusetts State Information Technology Division (ITD), which ignited a worldwide battle over XML formats standards, released a draft measure on Monday that includes Microsoft's controversial OOXML format. The action, which was not unexpected, backs Microsoft in its effort to garner support to establish its Microsoft Office platform as a software standard... The office software standards battle has extended beyond individual states to international standards bodies with the ODF standard obtaining endorsement from the International Standards Organization (ISO) and Microsoft seeking endorsement from the ECMA standards body. While many firms have lined up with IBM and Sun Microsystems in favor of the ODF standard, Microsoft has garnered support from others including Apple and the U.S. Library of Congress. Open XML, which is supported by Microsoft and is the default format for its new Microsoft Office 2007, is available for past Microsoft Office versions. The ODF format is supported by the, which supplies free office software developed by Sun Microsystems and other vendors..."

  • [July 2, 2007] "Mass. Embraces MS' Open XML Document Format." By Peter Galli. From eWEEK (July 2, 2007). "... The commonwealth added Microsoft's format, also known as Ecma-376 or Open XML, to the list of approved standards in the Massachusetts' ETRM (Enterprise Technical Reference Model), an architectural framework used to identify the standards, specifications and technologies that support Massachusett's computing environment. The commonwealth reviews and updates the manual every six months... Melanie Wyne, executive director of the Computing Technology Industry Association's Washington-based Initiative for Software Choice, which has long lobbied to have both formats recognized, said she was encouraged by the developments in Massachusetts: 'They signal in our minds acceptance of an argument we've long advocated: standards used by governments to improve IT for citizens and agencies should remain technologically neutral and be flexible.' But Bob Sutor, vice president of open source and standards for IBM, based in Armonk, N.Y., had a different take. While he applauded the commonwealth for opening the debate to citizens, he argued that ODF is the better choice: 'Open XML looks backward, while ODF is an international ISO standard, and is forward-looking," he said. "The public understands this, too, as nearly 15,000 people opposing Open XML have signed an online petition circulated by the Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure. We look forward to seeing the public discussion in the commonwealth'..."

About ITD Enterprise Technology

Information Technology Division (ITD), Enterprise Technology: In close collaboration with the various state agencies and other ITD units, the Enterprise Technology Office (ETO) develops the architecture, standards, policies, governance, best practices and technology road map that support the business priorities of the Commonwealth. The ETO supports ITD in providing common infrastructure and shared services for all Executive Department agencies, and offering these and other services to the Judicial and Legislative Branches as well as Constitutional Offices. The office also takes a forward-looking role in reviewing the appropriateness of new or emerging technologies that can enhance the business mission and reduce the information security risk of the Commonwealth, establishing a common language and providing education and awareness for our customers.

The Policy and Architecture unit develops enterprise IT policies, standards, guidelines and architecture in collaboration with Executive Departments and other government entities to promote statewide connectivity, interoperability, consistent practices and minimum performance expectations. Through the setting of enterprise expectations, the Commonwealth assures the reliability, availability and security of its Information Technology resources. The unit participates in agency and enterprise IT project reviews to ensure fit with policies and standards as well as enterprise architecture direction. The unit also plans and coordinates the implementation of SOA enterprise architecture and shared services.

The Chief Planning and Strategy Officer oversees the responsibilities of the Enterprise Technology Office.

Related: Ecma TC46 to Standardize XML Paper Specification (XPS)

From the Ecma announcement of July 03, 2007, "Ecma International Creates TC46 to Standardize XML Paper Specification. The New Open Standard Simplifies and Improves Electronic Paper Workflow Process."

At the General Assembly meeting on 28 and 29 June 2007, Ecma International has created Technical Committee 46 (TC46) to produce a formal standard for an XML-based electronic paper format and XML-based page description language which is consistent with existing implementations of the format called the XML Paper Specification (XPS). The aim is to provide a standard, secure and highly trustworthy format that enables a wide set of applications, devices, tools and platforms to implement compatible paginated-document workflows.

The creation of TC46 was proposed by Autodesk, Inc.; Brother Industries, Ltd.; Canon Inc.; FUJIFILM Corporation; Global Graphics Software Limited; Hewlett-Packard Company; Konica Minolta Holdings, Inc.; Lexmark International, Inc.; Microsoft Corporation; Quality Logic Inc.; Ricoh Company, Ltd.; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.; Software Imaging; Toshiba Corporation; Xerox Corporation and Zoran Corporation, the organizations co-sponsoring the initiative. Martin Bailey of Global Graphics Software Limited will Chair TC46 and the Vice-Chair will be Takashi Hashizume of Fuji Xerox.

Simplifying the Electronic Paper Workflow Process: Standardization of XPS will enable users to enjoy the benefits the technology provides through a number of electronic paper scenarios. These include improved document archiving, better integration between document peripherals and applications and improved print performance and fidelity, and will be delivered with the assurance that implementations from multiple vendors will be completely interoperable.

"As technologies consistently advance, the need for simplicity in how users can view, share and archive data found in electronic paper has become even more essential," said Dr. Istvan Sebestyen, Secretary General of Ecma International. "The XPS format recognizes this need for easy access and interoperability in the marketplace, serving as a viable solution for ensuring support of electronic paper workflows across various computers, applications and devices."

In its role, TC46 will produce a fully documented and unambiguous standard for an XML-based electronic paper format and page description language, appropriate W3C XML Schemas to enable automatic verification of files written to the standard and enable interoperability between existing industry implementations of applications, devices, tools and platforms. In addition, TC46 will assume responsibility for the ongoing maintenance and evolution of this Ecma International standard, as well as support backwards compatibility with implementations targeted to prior versions of the standard. Finally, TC46 will establish and maintain liaison with other Ecma TCs and with other Standards Setting Organizations (SSOs)...

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