**Contents**

- Summary
- Bibliographic Information
- About MathML Version 3.0
- About the W3C Math Working Group
- Principal References

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has announced the publication of a First Public Working Draft for MathML which specifies a new version of the Mathematical Markup Language (MathML 3.0), at present under active development. MathML is an XML application for describing mathematical notation and capturing both its structure and content. The goal is to enable mathematics to be served, received, and processed on the World Wide Web, just as HTML has enabled this functionality for text.

According to the specification abstract, "MathML can be used to encode both mathematical notation and mathematical content. About thirty-five (35) of the MathML tags describe abstract notational structures, while another about one hundred and seventy provide a way of unambiguously specifying the intended meaning of an expression. Additional chapters discuss how the MathML content and presentation elements interact, and how MathML renderers might be implemented and should interact with browsers. Finally, this document addresses the issue of special characters used for mathematics, their handling in MathML, their presence in Unicode, and their relation to fonts.

While MathML is human-readable in all but the simplest cases, authors use equation editors, conversion programs, and other specialized software tools to generate MathML. Several versions of such MathML tools exist, and more, both freely available software and commercial products, are under development."

The W3C Math Working Group is currently co-chaired by Patrick Ion of the AMS and Robert Miner of Design Science. The Working Group was re-chartered in March 2006 to improve and extend the functionality of the MathML 2.0 (Second Edition) Recommendation in light of several years of experience of large-scale deployment by many individuals and organizations. MathML 2.0 Second Edition became a Recommendation in October 2003.

Since October 2003, W3C's Math Interest Group has witnessed the broad adoption of MathML by such bodies as major scientific publishers, the patent offices of USA and Russia, and other public and private specifications. MathML has been implemented in major browsers, office applications, and many other software systems. By examining the varied experiences of MathML adopters and implementers, the Math Interest Group identified a number of areas where improvement and extension of MathML would significantly enhance its use and adoption. These include better support for internationalization of mathematics, accessibility, semantic encoding of mathematics, and precise control of rendering for print publishing. In addition, closely related technologies such as Unicode have continued to advance. MathML 3.0 is designed to address these issues.

MathML 3.0 does not signal any change in the overall design of MathML. However, the specification document is being almost completely rewritten to provide a coherent whole containing corrections to all the known errata and clarifications of issues that proved problematic and additions made. Throughout the editing, care is being taken to distinguish the normative and non-normative aspects.

MathML 3.0 Chapter 3 on presentation-oriented markup, is being extended to describe new functionalities added as well as smaller improvements of material already proposed. As a result of concerns for support of high-quality typesetting and for the relationship with CSS, the element 'mpadded' has been revised, and the element 'maction' remains under discussion for possible deprecation. As a result of earlier work, as recorded in the W3C Note Arabic Mathematical Notation, the relationship with bidirectional text is being clarified. In addition, some adjustments for easy markup of elementary school mathematics have been made.

Chapter 4 of MathML Version 3.0, covers content-oriented markup. The intent of the content markup specification in the Mathematical Markup Language is to provide an explicit encoding of the underlying mathematical structure of an expression, rather than a particular rendering for the expression. Even a disciplined and systematic use of presentation tags cannot properly capture this semantic information: without additional information it is impossible to decide whether a particular presentation was chosen deliberately to encode the mathematical structure or simply to achieve a particular visual or aural effect. Encoding the underlying mathematical structure explicitly, without regard to how it is presented aurally or visually, enables interchange of information more precisely between systems that are able to manipulate the mathematics. The text of Chapter 4 has been completely regenerated, filtered by extraction from XML content dictionaries written in accordance with OpenMath. The advantages of this method include a level of consistency in interpretation that the previous version perhaps did not achieve, automatic generation of some useful and informative tabulations, and a guarantee of alignment with the basic part of OpenMath that the community will appreciate.

MathML 3.0 Chapter 5 ("Combining Presentation and Content Markup") is being newly written to reflect changes in the technology available. Chapter 6 ("Characters, Entities and Fonts") has been rewritten and reorganized to reflect the new situation in regard to Unicode. It is expected that some new ancillary tables will be provided that reflect requests the WG has received.

Math Working Group plans include an updated XHTML+MathML+SVG profile that combines XHTML 1.1, MathML 3.0, and SVG 1.1 together. This profile will enable mixing XHTML, MathML and SVG in the same document using XML namespaces mechanism, while allowing validation of such a mixed-namespace document.

W3C has also released a Working Draft MathML for CSS Profile. This document "presents a subset of MathML 3.0 which can be used to capture the structure of mathematical formulas in a way particularly suitable for further CSS formatting. The MathML profile subset is expected to facilitate adoption of MathML in web browsers and CSS formatters, since it emphasizes the widely adopted CSS visual formatting model enhanced with only a few mathematically oriented extensions. These are present to allow formatting some complex inline expressions requiring special layout schemata given in presentational MathML. The development of this CSS-oriented profile is coordinated with ongoing work on CSS3 and may require a limited set of new properties to be added to existing modules. The full MathML specification defines a more extensive markup language for mathematical formalism than can readily be rendered using the present CSS visual formatting model and its realizations."