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Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) 
Contents:
Mathematics is an essential aspect of scientific communication and education. Therefore, to realize the potential of the Web for science, it must be possible to use mathematics on the Web. Mathematical expressions must move seamlessly between the Web and a wide range of related environments including authoring tools and content management systems, XMLbased publishing work flows, elearning environments, and scientific computing software.
To address this need, W3C brought together key players and major stake holders to devise a solution. The Math Working Group created the Mathematical Markup Language (MathML), a highlystructured, informationrich, XML encoding for mathematical expressions, and is chartered to maintain it.
MathML facilitates the authoring and presentation of mathematical expressions in print and on the screen, and forms the basis for machine to machine communication of mathematics on the Web. Designed as an XML application, MathML provides two sets of tags, one for the presentation of mathematics and the other associated with the meaning behind equations. MathML is not designed for people to enter by hand; specialized tools provide the means for typing in and editing mathematical expressions.
The Math WG has been working on several drafts besides MathML 3.0, including a subset of MathML that can be rendered on any browser that supports CSS, and an alternative syntax that might be used for entering MathML in wikis.
The Math WG works together with the CSS WG, the CDF WG and the HTML WG on a common framework for compound documents that supports typographically correct mathematics. MathML is fully integrated with XHTML and SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics), and interoperates well with other W3C technologies such as XSL (the Extensible Stylesheet Language), CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), and XML Schema. [Activity Statement 200704]
[April 27, 2007] First W3C Working Draft for Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) Version 3.0." The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has announced the publication of a First Public Working Draft for MathML which specifies a new version of the Mathematical Markup Language (MathML 3.0), at present under active development. The Working Group was rechartered to enhance MathML to better support internationalization of mathematics, accessibility, semantic encoding of mathematics, Unicode alignment, and precise control of rendering for print publishing. MathML is an XML application for describing mathematical notation and capturing both its structure and content. The goal is to enable mathematics to be served, received, and processed on the World Wide Web, just as HTML has enabled this functionality for text. According to the specification abstract, MathML can be used to encode both mathematical notation and mathematical content. About thirtyfive (35) of the MathML tags describe abstract notational structures, while another about one hundred and seventy provide a way of unambiguously specifying the intended meaning of an expression. Additional chapters discuss how the MathML content and presentation elements interact, and how MathML renderers might be implemented and should interact with browsers. Finally, this document addresses the issue of special characters used for mathematics, their handling in MathML, their presence in Unicode, and their relation to fonts. While MathML is humanreadable in all but the simplest cases, authors use equation editors, conversion programs, and other specialized software tools to generate MathML. Several versions of such MathML tools exist, and more, both freely available software and commercial products, are under development.
[August 26, 2000] "MathML is intended to facilitate the use and reuse of mathematical and scientific content on the Web, and for other applications such as computer algebra systems, print typesetting, and voice synthesis. MathML can be used to encode both the presentation of mathematical notation for highquality visual display, and mathematical content, for applications where the semantics plays more of a key role such as scientific software or voice synthesis. MathML is cast as an application of XML. As such, with adequate style sheet support, it will ultimately be possible for browsers to natively render mathematical expressions. For the immediate future, several vendors offer applets and plugins which can render MathML in place in a browser. Translators and equation editors which can generate HTML pages where the math expressions are represented directly in MathML will be available soon. MathML consists of a number of XML tags which can be used to mark up an equation in terms of its presentation and also its semantics. MathML attempts to capture something of the meaning behind equations rather than concentrating entirely on how they are going to be formatted out on the screen. This is on the basis that mathematical equations and are meaningful to many applications without regard as to how they are rendered aurally or visually. XML is closely related to HTML and assumes a very similar, but not identical syntax. One distinction is that in XML you cannot omit end tags. Furthermore, tags for elements which don't have any content are specially marked by a slash before the closing angle bracket. MathML is a lowlevel format for describing mathematics as a basis for machine to machine communication. MathML is not intended for editing by hand, but is for handling by specialized authoring tools such as equation editors, or for export to and from other math packages. MathML is intended to facilitate the use and reuse of mathematical and scientific content on the Web, and for other applications such as computer algebra systems, print typesetters, and voice synthesizers. MathML can be used to encode both mathematical notation, for highquality visual display, and mathematical content, for more semantic applications like scientific software, or voice synthesis. [From the W3C web site, 20000826]
[April 15, 2003] Last Call Draft for Mathematical Markup Language V2.0 Second Edition. The W3C Math Working Group has released a Last Call Working Draft Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) Version 2.0 (2nd Edition). MathML is "an XML application that allows mathematical notation and content to be served, received and processed on the Web." MathML Second Edition introduces an XML Schema which supports checking a MathML fragment in a stricter way than by performing DTD validation. The new release also includes an XHTML+MathML version with inline examples, suitable for viewing with a MathML enabled browser. MathML Version 2.0 Second Edition updates the Recommendation of February 21, 2001 by incorporating errata into the main document and providing additional documentation. The W3C Working Group invites comments during the Last Call period, which ends May 09, 2003.
[February 20, 2001] MathML Version 2.0 Published as a W3C Recommendation. The W3C has released the Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) Version 2.0 specfication as a W3C Recommendation, together with an implementation and interoperability report, several testimonials from implementation teams, and a press release. "MathML 2.0 consists of a number of XML tags which can be used to mark up an equation in terms of its presentation and also its semantics. As a result, MathML 2.0 attempts to capture something of the meaning behind equations rather than concentrating entirely on how they are going to be formatted out on the screen. This is because mathematical equations are meaningful to many applications, independent of how they are rendered aurally or visually. MathML 2.0 is intended to facilitate the use and reuse of mathematical and scientific content on the Web, and for other applications such as computer algebra systems, print typesetting, and voice synthesizers. MathML can be used to encode both the presentation of mathematical notation for highquality visual display, and mathematical content, for applications where the semantics plays more of a key role such as scientific software or voice synthesis." [Full context]
[January 09, 2000] MathML 2.0 Specification as a Proposed Recommendation. Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) Version 2.0 has been released as a W3C Proposed Recommendation. Reference: W3C Proposed Recommendation 08January2001, edited by David Carlisle (NAG), Patrick Ion (Mathematical Reviews, American Mathematical Society), Robert Miner (Design Science, Inc.), and Nico Poppelier (Penta Scope). The Proposed Recommendation review period extends through 5February2001, after which the specification may become a W3C Recommendation. Document abstract: "This specification defines the Mathematical Markup Language, or MathML. MathML is an XML application for describing mathematical notation and capturing both its structure and content. The goal of MathML is to enable mathematics to be served, received, and processed on the World Wide Web, just as HTML has enabled this functionality for text. This specification of the markup language MathML is intended primarily for a readership consisting of those who will be developing or implementing renderers or editors using it, or software that will communicate using MathML as a protocol for input or output. It is not a User's Guide but rather a reference document. This document begins with background information on mathematical notation, the problems it poses, and the philosophy underlying the solutions MathML proposes. MathML can be used to encode both mathematical notation and mathematical content. About thirty of the MathML tags describe abstract notational structures, while another about one hundred and fifty provide a way of unambiguously specifying the intended meaning of an expression. Additional chapters discuss how the MathML content and presentation elements interact, and how MathML renderers might be implemented and should interact with browsers. Finally, this document addresses the issue of MathML characters and their relation to fonts. While MathML is humanreadable, it is anticipated that, in all but the simplest cases, authors will use equation editors, conversion programs, and other specialized software tools to generate MathML. Several early versions of such MathML tools already exist, and a number of others, both freely available software and commercial products, are under development." Major changes: "Chapters 1 and 2, which are introductory material, have been revised to reflect the changes elsewhere in the document, and in the rapidly evolving Web environment. Chapters 3 and 4 have been extended to describe new functionalities added as well as smaller improvements of material already proposed. Chapter 5 has been newly written to reflect changes in the technology available. The major tables in Chapter 6 have been regenerated and reorganized to reflect an improved list of characters useful for mathematics, and the text revised to reflect the new situation in regard to Unicode. Chapter 7 has been completely revised since Web technology has changed. A new Chapter 8 on the DOM for MathML has been added; the latter points to new appendices D and E for detailed listings. The appendices have been reorganized into normative and nonnormative groups. Appendices D (Document Object Model for MathML), E (MathML Document Object Model Bindings), and G (Sample CSS Style Sheet for MathML) are completely new." See further information in (1) the public mailing list archives, (2) the W3C MathML website, (3) the Zvon MathML reference.
[November 13, 2000] MathML 2.0 W3C Candidate Recommendation. As part of the W3C User Interface Domain activity, the W3C Math Working Group has produced a Candidate Recommendation specification for Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) Version 2.0. Reference: W3C Candidate Recommendation 13November2000, edited by David Carlisle (NAG), Patrick Ion (Mathematical Reviews, American Mathematical Society), Robert Miner (Design Science, Inc.), and Nico Poppelier (Penta Scope). Document abstract: "This specification defines the Mathematical Markup Language, or MathML. MathML is an XML application for describing mathematical notation and capturing both its structure and content. The goal of MathML is to enable mathematics to be served, received, and processed on the World Wide Web, just as HTML has enabled this functionality for text. This specification of the markup language MathML is intended primarily for a readership consisting of those who will be developing or implementing renderers or editors using it, or software that will communicate using MathML as a protocol for input or output." Available also as HTML zip archive, XHTML zip archive, XML zip archive, PDF (screen), PDF (paper).
[March 29, 2000] The W3C Math Working Group has published a 'last call' Working Draft of the MathML 2.0 specification: Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) Version 2.0. Reference: W3C Working Draft 28March2000; edited by Nico Poppelier (Penta Scope), Robert Miner (Geometry Technologies, Inc.), Patrick Ion (Mathematical Reviews, American Mathematical Society), and David Carlisle (NAG). The last call review period ends 30April2000. The document has been produced as part of the activity of the W3C User Interface Domain. It is available also in these formats: HTML zip archive, XHTML zip archive, XML zip archive, PDF (screen), and PDF (paper). The working draft specification "defines the Mathematical Markup Language, or MathML. MathML is an XML application for describing mathematical notation and capturing both its structure and content. The goal of MathML is to enable mathematics to be served, received, and processed on the World Wide Web, just as HTML has enabled this functionality for text. [It] is intended primarily for a readership consisting of those who will be developing or implementing renderers or editors using it, or software that will communicate using MathML as a protocol for input or output. It is not a User's Guide but rather a reference document... document begins with background information on mathematical notation, the problems it poses, and the philosophy underlying the solutions MathML proposes. MathML can be used to encode both mathematical notation and mathematical content. About thirty of the MathML tags describe abstract notational structures, while another one hundred provide a way of unambiguously specifying the intended meaning of an expression. Additional chapters discuss how the MathML content and presentation elements interact, and how MathML renderers might be implemented and should interact with browsers. Finally, this document addresses the issue of MathML characters and their relation to fonts. While MathML is humanreadable, it is anticipated that, in all but the simplest cases, that authors will use equation editors, conversion programs, and other specialized software tools to generate MathML. Several early versions of such MathML tools already exist, and a number of others, both freely available software and commercial products, are under development." Appendix A of the document supplies the main body of the XML DTD; the full DTD, as well as the XHTMLMath DTD, is available also as a separate file.
[February 24, 1998] MathML (Mathematical Markup Language) specification issued by W3C as a Proposed Recommendation. Editors: Patrick Ion and Robert Miner. Reference: PRmath19980224. Abstract: "MathML is a lowlevel syntax for representing structured data such as mathematics in machinetomachine communication over the Web, providing a muchneeded solution for including mathematical expressions over the Web. In developing MathML, the goal was to define an XMLcompliant markup language that describes the content and presentation of mathematical expressions. This was achieved with MathML. As an effective way to include mathematical expressions in Web documents, MathML gives control over the presentation and the meaning of such expressions. It does this by providing two sets of markup tags: one set presents the notation of mathematical data in markup format, and the other set relays the semantic meaning of mathematical expressions, enabling complex mathematical and scientific notation to be encoded in an explicit way. As an XML application, MathML capitalizes on XML features and benefits from the wide support of XML. Unlike HTML which was intended as a markup language for use by people, MathML is intended to be used by machines, facilitating the searching and indexing of mathematical and scientific information. Software tools that work with MathML render MathML into formatted equations, enabling users to edit mathematical equations much as one might edit HTML text. Several early versions of such MathML tools already exist, and a number of others, both freely available software and commercial products, are under development." See the press release.
[December 09, 2002] "Design Science Announces MathFlow for Arbortext, Supports MathML 2.0 Markup. Supports Creating, Editing, Publishing of MathMLBased Equations Within Arbortext Products."  "Design Science, Inc., the developers of the Equation Editor in Microsoft Office, MathType, WebEQ and MathPlayer, today announced that its MathFlow for Arbortext software will be demonstrated in booth #537 at the XML Conference 2002, December 1012 in Baltimore, Maryland. MathFlow for Arbortext provides organizations with a WYSIWYG environment where users can import, edit, maintain and publish MathMLbased equations to multiple types of media, including print, PDF, HTML and HTML Help. MathML is the XMLbased language for encoding mathematics developed by the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Math Working Group. MathML is quickly becoming the mathematical representation of choice for the scientific, engineering, pharmaceutical and aerospace industries, as well as the education community, and STM publishers (Science/Technical/Medical)... Founded in 1986 and headquartered in Long Beach, California, Design Science, Inc., develops software used by scientists, engineers and educators, including MathType, Equation Editor in Microsoft Office, WebEQ, MathPlayer, TeXaide and MathFlow for Arbortext, to communicate on the web and in print. Design Science has played a leading role in developing MathML and continues to be actively involved in the W3C Math Working Group...Arbortext is the only global provider of XMLbased multichannel software that enables the creation, editing and publishing of information to multiple media types  web, print, CDROM, wireless  from a single source of content. Shipping since 1991, Arbortext's standardsbased software supports technical publishing, reference publishing and business publishing applications that enable enterprises to provide more accurate, costefficient, complete, timely, consistent and usable information on all media..."
[April 04, 2002] W3C Math Working Group Publishes CrossBrowser Universal MathML Stylesheet. On behalf of the W3C Math Working Group, David Carlisle (Numerical Algorithms Group) recently announced the availability of an XSL stylesheet for cross browser MathML viewing. The stylesheet "allows conforming XHTML+MathML documents to be rendered, without changing the document, in a range of browsers. This 'Universal MathML stylesheet' makes it possible to author a single form of HTML+MathML that will be viewable in many browsers, including IE5.5, IE6, and Mozilla. Basically the stylesheet detects the environment in which it is running and inserts any <object>, <embed> or other browserspecific markup required. If only presentation MathML rendering is available, it performs a 'Content to Presentation' transformation before passing the document to the rendering engine. This allows the document to be authored in a browserindependent style." The online documentation provides examples using the MathPlayer or Techexplorer plugins and standard Web browsers running on Windows, Macintosh, and Linux/UNIX platforms. [Full context]
MathML International Conference 2000. 'MathML and Math on the Web.' October 20  21, 2000. University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign. An announcement "Wolfram Research To Host First MathML Conference" says in part: "Wolfram Research, Inc. is the host of the first MathML and Math on the Web conference, to be held October 2021, 2000, on the campus of the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. This conference brings together those interested or involved in the future of math on the web. The conference is sponsored by Wolfram Research, the AMS (American Mathematical Society), Compaq, IBM, Netscape, the University of Illinois Grainger Engineering Library, Waterloo Maple, and the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium). This conference provides a forum for presenting and discussing current research and applications involving MathML, an XML application for describing mathematical notation and capturing both its structure and its content. MathML is the W3Cendorsed standard for displaying math on the web. The conference embraces all areas of MathML technologies, including rendering, authoring, converting, and archiving. Scheduled events include an opening video address by Tim BernersLee, creator of the World Wide Web and director of the W3C, as well as keynote addresses by Robert Sutor, IBM Program Director for XML Technology ["XML: From Math to SOAP"], and Stephen Wolfram, founder of Wolfram Research and creator of Mathematica ["Mathematical Notation: Past and Future"]. More information about the conference, including the schedule of events and presentation abstracts, is available on the MathML conference web site at http://www.mathmlconference.org."
Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) 1.01 Specification. W3C Recommendation, revision of 7 July 1999. RECMathML19980407, revised 19990707. Edited by Patrick Ion and Robert Miner. Chandes are editorial. "This specification defines the Mathematical Markup Language, or MathML. MathML is an XML application for describing mathematical notation and capturing both its structure and content. The goal of MathML is to enable mathematics to be served, received, and processed on the Web, just as HTML has enabled this functionality for text."
13th OpenMath Meeting. University of Saint Andrews. 10August2000. Discussions on "OpenMath and MathML". Also OMDOC: An Infrastructure for OpenMath Content Dictionary Information. [cache]
[August 08, 2001] "MathSoft Introduces Mathcad Client. New CostEffective Tool Enables Dynamic Workgroup Collaboration and Web Capabilities for Distributing Mathcad Content."  "MathSoft Engineering & Education, Inc., a leading provider of interactive math, science and engineering software products and content, today announced Mathcad(R) Client, a lowcost deployment solution for sharing and collaborating on Mathcadcreated content across and throughout organizations. With over 1.5 million users in math, science and engineering worldwide, Mathcad is the most widely used software application for applying mathematics. [Use:] (1) Using Mathcad Client as a standalone interactive viewer for Mathcad documents: Engineers can share their Mathcadcreated designs and calculations with anyone who has the Mathcad Client software. Mathcad and Mathcad Client fully support the MathML standard for both presentation and content of mathematics online. As a result, both packages uniquely provide the interactivity afforded by the Mathcad environment and new functionality for publishing math on the Web. (2) Embedding Mathcad calculations and content in other applications: Mathcad Client supports popular Mathcad addins for Excel, Visio, and AutoCAD, as well as standard OLE embedding and support for other applications. Mathcad Client can even be used to support embedded uses in applications developed in Visual Basic and C++. (3) Using Mathcad Client as a browser plugin for Internet Explorer or Netscape to view Webbased live math content: Users can combine the navigation capabilities of their favorite Webbrowser with the math display and calculation capabilities of Mathcad Client to create a powerful solution for publishing technical material on the Web... Through the integration of MathML (Mathematical Markup Language), the first XML standard to be approved by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), Mathcad Client offers organizations new options for publishing and communicating technical content. Users can both save worksheets in MathML format as well as read MathML files back into Mathcad Client as active documents. Mathcad Client is the first tool of its kind to offer bidirectional support for MathML. In combination with IBM techexplorer Hypermedia Browser, Mathcad and Mathcad Client are the only tools to fully support both the presentation and calculation standards of MathML."
"OpenMath, MathML and XSL." By David Carlisle (The Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd, Oxford UK). In SIGSAM Bulletin Volume 34, Number 2 (June 2000), pages 611 (with 9 references). "The paper describes OpenMath and MathML, two closely related languages that are currently being developed to encode mathematical expressions, and also discusses the XML transformation language, XSL, that may be used to perform translations between these languages. XML uses a system of namespaces to avoid name clashes between different languages. In contrast, the languages discussed in this paper all have such a namespace defined. OpenMath and MathML, together with XSL, are proving to be a very effective combination that offers real promise of delivering documents with mathematical content marked up in a semantically rich language, and being presented in conventional mathematical notation. This should be possible without the reader having to install any nonstandard or proprietary software. In the short term, the Mozilla browser is the nearest to delivering such a system, but it seems likely that other browsers will soon implement at least some of the necessary tools. Internet Explorer will certainly implement XSL, and Amaya (the W3C's testbed browser) currently implements most of Presentation MathML. Thirdparty plugins or applets may be used to display MathML in browsers which do not have native MathML rendering."
"OpenMath and MathML." From the 'OpenMath Project Final Report'. The OpenMath Consortium. "The details of the mapping between Content MathML and the OpenMath MathML CD Group are given in the document "Conversion between MathML and OpenMath." ... We believe that the emergence of MathML at this time is a great advantage for OpenMath. Not only does it offer a presentation mechanism suitable for use in browsers and interactive environments, but being a W3C Recommendation it is likely to be quite widely implemented whether natively or in plugins. We hope that MathML is a success and that OpenMath can exploit this to gain exposure and popularity."
techexplorer Hypermedia Browser. "IBM techexplorer is a plugin for Navigator and Internet Explorer and an ActiveX control for applications like Microsoft PowerPoint and Word. techexplorer enables the display of TeX, LaTeX and MathML documents and the publishing of interactive scientific material on the Web. Version 3.0 includes full support for MathML 1.01, augmented display of LaTeX, new ways to enliven techexplorer documents via C++, Java, JavaScript, the DOM, and a webbased equation editor. New to 3.0 is a Macintosh version, Mathematica connectivity, and a 30day trial download of the Professional Edition.
[April 07, 1998] Announcement for MathML as a W3C Recommendation
Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) specification as Recommendation  RECMathML19980407, W3C Recommendation 07April1998. [local archive copy, .ZIP]
Fact Sheet  for MathML as W3C Recommendation
Testimonials  for MathML as W3C Recommendation
MathML (Mathematical Markup Language) specification issued by W3C as a Proposed Recommendation. February 24, 1998.
Mathematical Markup Language  W3C Working Draft. January 06, 1998. WDmath980106.
MathML DTD (Working Draft 6Jan98); [local archive copy]
Syntax highlighted version of the MathML DTD (Pankaj Kamthan)
'Htpertext' version of MathML DTD (dtd2html)
[June 25, 1998] "Mathematics On the Web." By Rockford J. Ross [Computer Science Department, Montana State University]. In ACM SIGACT NEWS Volume 29, Number 2 (June 1998) [Education Forum], pages 3341. Review of MathML from the ACM Special Interest Group on Algorithms and Computation Theory. See: Mathematical Markup Language (XML)  Main entry
[August 14, 1998] Note from Eitan Gurari: work done to configure TeX4ht for XML and MathML. See: http://www.cis.ohiostate.edu/~gurari/temp/xml/ml.html; [local archive copy] Also, the collected documentation.
MathML Files: DSSSL style sheet for MathML MathML Files: DSSSL style sheet for MathML. (David Carlisle)
[September 22, 2000] "Towards a Library of Formal Mathematics." By Andrea Asperti, Luca Padovani, Claudio Sacerdoti Coen, and Irene Schena (Department of Computer Science, University of Bologna). Paper submitted to TPHOLS2000. "The Extensible Markup Language (XML) opens the possibility to start anew, on a solid technological ground, the ambitious goal of developing a suitable technology for the creation and maintenance of a virtual, distributed, hypertextual library of formal mathematical knowledge. In particular, XML provides a central technology for storing, retrieving and processing mathematical documents, comprising sophisticated webpublishing mechanisms (stylesheets) covering notational and stylistic issues. In this paper, we discuss the overall architectural design of the new systems, and our progress in this direction." Note also "Formal Mathematics in MathML," presented at the October MathML Conference at UIUC. Published within the HELM Project [XML and the Hypertextual Electronic Library of Mathematics].
[September 22, 2000] "XML, Stylesheets and the remathematization of formal content." By Andrea Asperti, Luca Padovani, Claudio Sacerdoti Coen, and Irene Schena (Department of Computer Science, University of Bologna). Submitted to LPAR2000. "An important part of the descriptive power of mathematics derives from its ability to represent formal concepts in a highly evolved, twodimensional system of symbolic notations. Tools for the mechanization of mathematics and the automation of formal reasoning must eventually face the problem of remathematization of the logical, symbolic content of the information, especially in view of their integration with the World Wide Web. In a different work, we already discussed the pivotal role that XMLtechnology is likely to play in such an integration. In this paper, we focus on the problem of (Web) publishing, advocating the use of XSLStylesheets, in conjunction with the Mathematical Markup Language (MathML), as a standard, application independent and modular way for associating notation to formal content." Published within the HELM Project [XML and the Hypertextual Electronic Library of Mathematics].
MathML in Mozilla (Roger B. Sidje, David Fiddes, P. S. Karthikeyan). "The priority of the project will be to provide a compact and fast engine that will process MathML and enable Gecko to render mathematical expressions. Another goal is to provide a WYSIWYG interface to MathML. This will be a graphical equation editor with an internal representation in standard MathML text."
TtHMML, a TeX to MathML translator. See "Try out TtHMML." NB: 'You need a browser such as Amaya, with MathML support, to see equations.'
Design Science MathML Resource Center
See also: "OpenMath Standard."
See also: "SGML/XML and Math."
See: The HELM Project. "The HELM project is meant to integrate the current tools for the automation of formal reasoning and the mechanization of mathematics (proof assistants and logical frameworks) with the most recent technologies for the development of web applications and electronic publishing, eventually passing through the Extensible Markup Language. The final aim is the development of a suitable technology for the creation and maintenance of a virtual, distributed, hypertextual library of formal mathematical knowledge."

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