The Cover PagesThe OASIS Cover Pages: The Online Resource for Markup Language Technologies
Advanced Search
Site Map
CP RSS Channel
Contact Us
Sponsoring CP
About Our Sponsors

Cover Stories
Articles & Papers
Press Releases

XML Query

XML Applications
General Apps
Government Apps
Academic Apps

Technology and Society
Tech Topics
Related Standards
Last modified: March 28, 2001

[March 21, 2001] "DirXML is a data sharing service flexible enough to accommodate any application, database, or directory. DirXML extends the data replication and synchronization capabilities of NDS eDirectory to other data sources, eliminating the isolation of your data among your various applications."

"DirXML is based on NDS eDirectory, Novell's powerful, secure directory service, and incorporates Extensible Markup Language (XML). XML is an open-standards language specification that can bridge the gap between open and proprietary applications. The end result of combining NDS eDirectory and XML is that you can publish new and updated information to every network directory that you specify, even directories housed on legacy or customized applications. For companies with hundreds of directories spread across multiple applications, this means a savings of thousands of hours and possibly hundreds of thousands of dollars."

"DirXML can publish information to -- or accept information from -- any application or directory for which it has a specific driver. In its first release DirXML includes drivers for the following applications: (1) Lotus Notes, (2) Microsoft Active Directory, (3) Microsoft Exchange, (4) NDS, and (5) Netscape LDAP. DirXML also includes a Software Developer Kit that administrators and developers can use to write C++ and Java drivers for the legacy and customized applications on their networks. Subsequent versions of DirXML will also include drivers for additional applications."

"DirXML uses XML in three ways. (1) XML documents stored in the directory are used to contain configuration information for the DirXML driver shim that communicates with a particular application. Configuration information might include the server with whom the driver shim is to communicate authentication credentials for the application, etc. (2) XML documents stored in the directory are used to define rules that control the processing of data change events in applications and the directory. (3) Data change events from the directory and from applications are represented using XML documents. Commands instructing the applications or the directory to change data for synchronization purposes are represented using XML documents. The power of XML is fully utilized by the manner in which DirXML uses the rules configured for an application to process a data change event originating from either the application or from the directory. Each DirXML rule performs a transformation on the XML document that contains the data change event. The result of processing a data change event by a series DirXML rules is that an XML document containing a data change event is transformed into an XML document containing one or more commands. The commands are applied to the target (directory or application) to effect the necessary changes to synchronize the data of interest..."

"How to Analyze NDS.DTD to Construct XDS Documents for DirXML." By Larry Fisher. "The DirXML engine communicates with your driver using XDS documents (DirXML's XML vocabulary for directory event information). Everything your driver tells the DirXML engine to do in the directory and everything the directory tells your driver to do will be in the form of an XDS document. XDS documents must be appropriate both syntactically and semantically in order for the DirXML engine to process them. Just as a blueprint describes the construction of a building, the NDS.DTD document is used to describe the allowable content in XDS documents. The NDS.DTD is like a recipe book for all allowable XDS statements. It is where the grammar for XDS is defined. This article demonstrates how to use NDS.DTD to construct XDS documents describing events from a sample application called PBXSimulator..." [cache]


  • DirXML Overview
  • Technical Submissions Facilitate Renewed Development of DSML Version 2.0.
  • DirXML DTDs. - Posted to the OASIS DSML list 2001-03.
  • DirXML FAQ document
  • DirXML In-Depth Information
  • DirXML technical white paper
  • DirXML Drivers
  • XML Integration Services
  • DirXML Driver Kit. "DirXML allows an application to share selected directory data with NDS and to synchronize that data between NDS and the application. DirXML has four main components: (1) The DirXML engine which provides the framework. (2) The DirXML rules which control the mapping of attributes and classes and the matching and creation of entries. (3) Event filters which control the direction of data synchronization. (4) The DirXML driver which serves as the interface between the application the DirXML engine. This document describes how to implement such a DirXML driver..."
  • XML Interfaces for C++
  • [March 28, 2001] "Novell Submits Research to Facilitate Key eCommerce Standard. Provision of DirXML work to OASIS will help drive standards to integrate directory technology and XML, the language of eBusiness." - "Novell, a leading provider of Net services software, announced today that it will turn over significant directory-related research and intellectual property to a key standards body to help accelerate the development and adoption of an industry-wide approach to integrating directory technology into eBusiness. Novell, whose NDS eDirectory has led the directory market for the last nine years, will be contributing research on its DirXML, a data sharing and synchronization product, to the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). OASIS will use Novell's expertise to help accelerate the development of the Directory Service Markup Language -- an initiative aimed at tying the network and identity management power of the directory with the transaction capabilities of XML, the language of eBusiness... Technology companies within the industry, recognizing the significant potential benefits of getting directories to effectively talk to one another, have turned to OASIS for a solution, establishing the DSML Technical Committee to work toward an industry-wide approach to leveraging the directory for eBusiness. DSML 1.0, launched in 1999 by directory vendor Bowstreet with the backing of Novell and others, was an important first step, providing a common way to describe what was in a directory." [source]

Earlier references on DirXML and DSML:

  • [August 19, 2000] "E-commerce puts directories in spotlight." By Stephanie Sanborn. In InfoWorld Volume 22, Issue 32 (August 07, 2000), page 36. "The explosion of business-to-business commerce and marketplaces -- environments where partners, customers, and suppliers interact using the same core of information -- are giving directories a chance to shine. To help leverage the store of valuable user data held in directories, the industry is turning toward metadirectory solutions and XML to simplify the task of integrating applications and systems. Serving as a layer between the directory itself and the business applications, metadirectories can help link multiple systems to relevant directory information, becoming a 'glue' to ensure all applications are synchronized around the same user data. . . According to Kim Cameron, an architect for Microsoft Metadirectory Solutions (MMS), XML is a 'directory wonder child' because it can tie together platforms and link identities across unconnected systems. Redmond, Wash.-based Microsoft recently released MMS 2.2, which has enhanced provisioning systems and a tighter interface with Active Directory. The XML wizard management agent for MMS 2.2 will allow MMS to interoperate with any XML data store and should emerge this fall. Officials said the company is planning to use XML in many applications, such as BizTalk, to ease application convergence. 'XML is certainly a piece of technology that's going to make using directories an awful lot easier, because the directory language is now basically in English -- using XML. It's very easy to look at XML-based files and coding and understand the kind of information that's being moved back and forth,' explains Jackson Shaw, a product manager for Windows 2000 server at Microsoft. 'XML is picking up steam, but there is still a long way to go to get a lot of applications, especially legacy apps, moved over to speaking XML.' For iPlanet, making sure developers can access directory information and use it in their applications is of utmost importance, because more directory-enabled applications result in more reasons to implement directories for business use, explains Wes Wasson, vice president of product marketing at Mountain View, Calif.-based iPlanet. The iPlanet Directory Application Integration (DAI) architecture sits atop the Unified User Management Services layer, which includes iPlanet directory and customer management solutions. Through the DAI, application developers can incorporate directory information into their applications using a series of tags rather than having to write out code and understand the intricacies of LDAP. According to David McNeely, director of product management for iPlanet directory and security products, a platform such as DAI that is extensible and makes a directory valuable to developers will help directory and metadirectory technology evolve. Novell is also aiming to ramp up directories' value through its DirXML technology, which is finally coming to light after being announced about a year ago."

  • [August 01, 2000] "Vendors look to ease directory synchronization." By Deni Connor. In Network World (July 31, 2000). "Novell and the Sun-Netscape Alliance are trying to make it easier for large customers to synchronize, exchange and manage user data across a variety of systems. Last week at The Burton Group Catalyst Conference, Novell announced that it is shipping its long-delayed metadirectory, DirXML, and several links, known as connectors, to other directories and messaging applications. Connectors let directories replicate changes with one application to another with Novell's NDS eDirectory at the center. In September, Novell will announce 12 other connectors for e-business and other applications, including PeopleSoft human resources applications; the Open Database Connectivity and Java Database Connectivity and X.500 directory standards; Windows NT domains; X.500; BroadVision's e-business applications; and SAP applications. Novell will also link the IBM/Tivoli SecureWay, Entrust and iPlanet Directory Server with its Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) connector. Those connectors will complement Novell's existing DirXML connectors for Microsoft Exchange and Active Directory, other Novell Directory Services directories, LDAP Version 3 and Lotus Notes. DirXML is based on NDS eDirectory and uses XML to link user data and create a metadirectory, which collates data from disparate directories and combines it into a logical whole. Sun-Netscape also rolled out a proprietary scripting language dubbed the Directory Application Interface (DAI), which works with XML, LDAP and Java Server Pages to build connectors. The company claims that DAI simplifies the creation of connectors, requiring developers to only know simple APIs and not the complexity of the directory." See "Directory Services Markup Language (DSML)."

  • [August 01, 2000] "Directories in the limelight." By Stephanie Sanborn. In Network World (July 25, 2000). "Directories took center stage at The Burton Group's annual Catalyst Conference here Monday, with Novell taking the wraps off its long-awaited DirXML product and iPlanet International introducing a DAI (Directory Application Integration) architecture and the iPlanet Directory Server 5. DirXML, based heavily on XML, acts as a link between the directory and business applications so that companies can integrate applications without altering the applications themselves. The software also allows the linking of data sources to access information "no matter where it resides," said Ed Anderson, director of product management for directory services at Provo, Utah-based Novell. . . The DirXML engine will sit on top of eDirectory, between the access front end and the management back-end systems, providing the framework for developers to build applications. With the user information stored in the directory and other corporate data sources, DirXML drivers serve as a link to enable services such as provisioning, business-to-business extranet access, data access based on security policies, and CRM (customer relationship management). . . Novell will create solutions around DirXML and deliver the technology through its channels, starting with consulting partners and services. The company at Catalyst will be demonstrating an example involving a sample employee provisioning system, with PeopleSoft as the HR component and DirXML linking the corporate systems. More solutions will be delivered during the next few months, Anderson said."

  • [December 17, 1999] "Directories to link up via XML." By Stephanie Sanborn. In InfoWorld (December 13, 1999). "Directory Vendors, including Novell and Bowstreet, last week formally proposed an Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based directory-services language that would provide enterprises with a standard set of programming commands to link network directories. A group of vendors led by Bowstreet and known informally as the 'DSML working group' last week submitted a draft version of the Directory Services Markup Language (DSML) to several standards associations. DSML 1.0, which is the result of a promise made in July to create a draft standard by the end of the year, is now in the hands of the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), an international standardization group focused on data-exchange formats. Versions of DSML were also submitted informally to the World Wide Web Consortium and Microsoft's BizTalk group. DSML uses XML schema to represent information in the directory, becoming a common means to describe directory content. DSML-enabled directories can work together and share information without requiring knowledge of the directory interfaces. DSML also complements Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)..." See the main news entry and "Directory Services Markup Language (DSML)."

  • [November 16, 1999] "Oracle, Siemens Join Forces on Directories. Meta directory to ship next year." By Mary Lisbeth D'Amico and Stephanie Sanborn. In InfoWorld Volume 21, Issue 45 (November 08, 1999), page 20. "Oracle and Siemens have joined forces to create technology that allows companies to unify multiple directories into one Web-based directory of directories. The companies will jointly develop and market the meta directory, and they plan to launch it in the first half of 2000 -- a time line that places them beside Novell and Microsoft in the meta-directory push. The new Oracle-Siemens product aims to tackle the problem of managing information in multiple directories by combining Siemens' DirXmetahub software, which enables businesses to bring together corporate directories, with Oracle's Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) directory. Novell is also developing a meta directory in the form of its DirXML technology, but Oracle chose not to expand its relationship with Novell, although the two have partnered on directory technology in the past."

  • [July 12, 1999] "Novell to Release XML Directory Services Tool." By Ben Heskett. In CNET (July 12, 1999). "Network software provider Novell intends to utilize the emerging Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard, sometimes called the lingua franca of e-commerce, to bolster its directory services strategy. Novell's new product initiative based on XML will allow applications built with ties into directory technology to have multiple 'views' of data stored in various systems. The new product, previously known as Virtual Replica, as reported will be called 'DirXML' and will enter testing by the end of this year, according to the company. The product highlights different strategies at work at Novell and Microsoft, arguably among the most influential software companies in the emerging directory services market going forward. Novell has chosen to implement an XML-based scheme to gain much of the same technology features Microsoft obtained last week when it acquired Zoomit." See "New Solution Extends E-Business. Novell's DirXML Links Business Data Across the Enterprise."

  • [March 28, 2000] "Novell to debut directory tool at BrainShare." By Scott Berinato and Mary Jo Foley. In PC Week (March 24, 2000). "Novell Inc. next week will use its user conference to test the efficacy of recent efforts to simplify its marketing message and attract a new generation of customers to buy into its directory-centric e-business strategy. A key piece of that strategy is the DirXML metadirectory, which Novell will debut in beta form at its BrainShare conference in Salt Lake City, sources said. The Provo, Utah, company also is preparing to create an e-Business Group, though it may not be ready to announce the group next week, other sources said. DirXML enables Novell's NDS eDirectory to inherit information from the many legacy directories in an enterprise and display it to an administrator, who can then manipulate and manage that information from the eDirectory interface. DirXML uses LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) to connect to other directories and XML (Extensible Markup Language) to communicate between directories..." See the list of announcements.

  • [June 27, 2000] "Novell's Ombudsmen to the World." By Rich "Doc" Colley. In CMPNet CommWeb (June 20, 2000). "After a remarkable comeback, the venerable father of NOSs is again spiraling downward in yet another admitted management blunder. Living on the bleeding edge of integrating directory structures world wide, Novell failed to keep one foot in the real world. As stock gurus and high tech wonder kids debate the future of this once omnipotent power, Novell continues to progress towards a dream of universal directory integration. A sort of 'ombudsmen' to all who seek workstation, internet, intranet, and DB directory compatibility. Without any public concessions in the NOS arena, Novell has started to wander into the Switzerland of OS competition. The big question is whether users of Microsoft, Linux, Solaris and others will be interested in Novell's turnkey solutions. . . Novell does have plans. And given their investment in this direction, I'd have to believe they intend to follow through. This could well be, for the foreseeable future, their bread and butter. Ed Anderson (Director, Product Management, Directory Services, Novell, Inc.) states clearly, 'For Windows 2000, Novell intends to provide the same level of functionality as the Windows NT redirection solution. The key difference, however, will be the use of synchronization technologies, i.e. DirXML, in place of redirection. In other words, there is no plan to create redirection solutions for Windows 2000. As with the NT domain redirection solution, Novell will be providing the management snap-ins to ConsoleOne for administering the Windows 2000 objects that are synchronized to NDS. The DirXML synchronization driver for Active Directory will be part of the base DirXML offering when the DirXML product ships (sometime this summer). The Windows 2000 management solution will follow shortly thereafter'."

  • [April 30, 2000] "Extending eDirectory's Reach. DirXML beta code links diverse directories, wraps up network control." By Henry Baltazar. In PC Week Volume 17, Number 17 (April 24, 2000), pages 79, 81. ['Novell's DirXML will be the key technology that will establish NDS eDirectory as a legitimate metadirectory. Assuming that the emerging XML standard takes hold, DirXML will be easier to implement than older metadirectory solutions, which had to utilize proprietary technology, but IT administrators should not expect an easy implementation.'] "Although Novell Inc. hasn't revealed the product's road map yet, DirXML will be the key technology the company will use to expand the reach of its NDS eDirectory. In PC Week Labs' tests of DirXML beta code released at Novell's BrainShare conference last month, we were impressed with its ability to link directories such as Microsoft Corp.'s Active Directory into Novell's NDS eDirectory -- truly making NDS the directory of directories. The major benefit of DirXML is that it will enable the consolidation of directory management using the industry-standard XML (Extensible Markup Language) protocol; all metadirectory products up to this point have used proprietary protocols because a standard didn't exist before. With DirXML in place, IT managers will be able to administer multiple user databases from a single interface and use NDS eDirectory to replicate and propagate information throughout a corporation. [...] After setting up DirXML on a Windows 2000 server that was running NDS eDirectory and Active Directory concurrently, we could link the two directories so that when we created or altered a user account in one directory, the administrative action was duplicated in the other. Likewise, we could eliminate a user from several databases and directories simultaneously with a single action. DirXML's administration interface is woven seamlessly into Novell's ConsoleOne management tool. Using ConsoleOne, we could manually edit data publishing and subscription rules to control the information to be shared between directories."

  • [July 12, 1999] "Novell Provides First Directory Solution for Linking Business Data To Electronic Business Applications. Novell Solution Brings All Data Together. Allows Rightful Owners to Control Information Using Industry Standard XML." - "Novell, Inc. today unveiled its solution for helping customers link business data for easy use in electronic business applications. At the Catalyst Conference, Novell demonstrated, for the first time, a new software solution called DirXML. Extending the capabilities of Novell Directory Services (NDS) 8, this new solution seamlessly links and manages all the places where business and network information is stored. This includes software applications, network operating systems, databases and network devices. This is the first solution based on a directory that not only brings all data together, but also keeps control of the information with the individual departments that own the data. DirXML will connect all data without the need to modify existing software, allowing companies to build on their existing technology investments. A directory stores and manages user identity, network and application information on a computer network. According to the industry analyst firm The Burton Group, most large corporations have at least 100 directories and software applications where data is stored, including human resources databases, corporate e-mail address books, computer account databases and phone extension listings. Many of these applications contain the same information, causing administrators to duplicate efforts as they maintain the data integrity, consistency and accuracy of the various directories. DirXML will allow companies to automate business processes by sharing and reusing the common data between various application directories, saving time and money."

  • [July 12, 1999] "New Solution Extends E-Business. Novell's DirXML Links Business Data Across the Enterprise." - "This week at the Catalyst Conference, Novell demonstrated, for the first time, a new software solution called DirXML that extends the capabilities of Novell Directory Services (NDS) 8. This new solution seamlessly links and manages all the places where business and network information is stored, including software applications, network operating systems, databases, and network devices. This is the first solution based on a directory that not only brings all data together, but also keeps control of the information with the individual departments that own the data. DirXML will connect all data without the need to modify existing software, allowing companies to build on their existing technology investments. 'DirXML is more than a standard meta-directory -- it eliminates the barrier between e-business and enterprise directories,' said Christopher Stone, senior vice president of strategy and corporate development for Novell. 'As opposed to existing offerings, Novell's DirXML uses XML to make it easy to support all data sources including ERP systems and meta-directory solutions from other vendors. Our goal is to connect all the data on the network to enable enterprise companies to expand their electronic business opportunities'."

  • [March 28, 2000] "Novell Announces Open Beta of DirXML Technology. Links and Manages Business-Critical Data Across One Net." - Extending the foundation of its DENIM architecture, Novell, Inc. today announced the open beta availability of the DirXML technology. Scheduled for general release this summer, DirXML enables organizations to easily link and manage user profiles across divergent platforms and networks. As a result, organizations can reduce network management and administration costs while helping to build and maintain loyalty among business clients and partners by simplifying management of common data. Leveraging Novell's industry-leading eDirectory, DirXML seamlessly links and manages all places where user profile information is stored, including software applications, network operating systems, databases and network devices. DirXML is the first directory-based technology that not only brings all data together, but also keeps control of information with the individual departments that own the data. This enables organizations to distribute data ownership while centralizing information availability. DirXML connects data without the need to modify existing software, thereby allowing organizations to build on their existing technology investments. And by providing centralized control over profile data, organizations can react quickly to business changes and reduce the need to hire staff to administer multiple user account directories and databases. DirXML opens up a variety of opportunities for enhanced solutions that extend the power of a full-service directory. DirXML will be a key technology in Novell Consulting's eBusiness practices and ties together objects from multiple existing applications and directories to provide highly secure eBusiness solutions for supply-chain partners and a variety of organizations across the Net."

  • [March 28, 2000] "Novell BrainShare 2000 Announcements." Today, during Novell's 16th annual BrainShare. conference, the company announced new products and services that support its Net services strategy of securing and powering Net-based business. The announcements include: (1) "Novell Announces Blueprint for Net Economy Software" --All Novell products will now be mapped against a new architectural model, code-named DENIM (Directory-enabled Net Infrastructure Model), that provides a customer-centric, eBusiness-focused framework for deploying directory-enabled products and services. (2) "Novell Announces Open Beta of DirXML Technology Links and Manages Business Critical Data Across One Net" -- Novell today announced the open beta availability for the DirXML technology, enabling organizations to easily link and manage user profiles across divergent platforms and networks. (3) "Novell Announces Immediate Availability of Enterprise-Ready Product, instantme; Free Instant Messaging Client Lets Users Communicate in Real-Time on the Net" --Targeted at businesses, instantme extends the ability for users to communicate in real-time with partners, suppliers and customers. . . ."

  • [August 01, 2000] "Sun Microsystems, other tech pioneers advance DSML in directory-enabled e-business products. Bowstreet, Critical Path, iPlanet, IBM, Microsoft, Novell, Oracle, and others embark on XML-based Directory Services Markup Language 2.0." - "Bowstreet, a leading provider of XML infrastructure for business-to-business (B2B) web marketplaces, today announced that eight new technology companies, including technology giant Sun Microsystems, have implemented Directory Services Markup Language (DSML) in their solutions. This vendor commitment to DSML, the Bowstreet-initiated XML standard that bridges the gap between directories and XML-based e-business applications, highlights the power of directory information in connecting multiple companies' business webs. Sun has introduced a technology preview of a DSML module for the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI). JNDI is part of the Java 2 platform, providing Java applications with seamless connectivity to heterogeneous enterprise naming and directory services. Using JNDI, developers can access data - including information about people and computing resources - from any vendor's directory. The DSML module fits beneath the JNDI API, allowing developers to manipulate and update directory contents and export them in DSML format, making it easier to customize and deploy B2B applications on a massive scale using a standard API. With the addition of the DSML module, JNDI will power highly customized B2B applications that employ rich data about people, machines, web services and other resources. Seven additional technology companies are also implementing DSML support. Novell has added DSML functionality in its DirXML, a product that allows organizations to distribute data ownership while centralizing information availability. IBM's Business Transformation and CIO organization is leveraging and exploiting DSML as part of its strategic initiative with XML; SLAPHAPI allows quick, easy access to LDAP directories from web applications written in any language. Critical Path places DSML in leading LDAP directory and meta-directory products. iPlanet recently released a DSML-enabled version of its LDAP software developer's kit, a tool that allows programmers to easily use the iPlanet Directory Server. Radiant Logic recently introduced DSML into its Virtual Directory Server software, a technology that enables directories to become central aggregation points for all key enterprise data. In addition to the directory, application and server vendors, DSML is also gaining strong momentum with XML companies like infoShark, which integrates DSML into its XML-based data interchange technology. Another XML company, Intalio, is planning to use DSML to enable process repositories that allow business partners to collaborate on the definition of Partner Interface Processes and manage their entire lifecycle." See "Directory Services Markup Language (DSML)."

  • [July 12, 1999]   Novell Announces DirXML.    From a recent company announcement: "This week at the Catalyst Conference, Novell demonstrated, for the first time, a new software solution called DirXML that extends the capabilities of Novell Directory Services (NDS) 8. This new solution seamlessly links and manages all the places where business and network information is stored, including software applications, network operating systems, databases, and network devices. DirXML is a solution that allows you to create an application view of the information in the directory and then replicate that information via XML and an XSL processor. The solution preserves the authority of the data sources and is based completely on business policies for authority, mapping of information and replication. With DirXML you can access information from any disparate system without modifying the application, you can then connect the information via an XML connector to the directory. Once in the directory you can then create a new type of cross-functional e-business application that can access a cross section of the rich data set. A beta testing version of DirXML will be available for customers to evaluate in the fourth calendar quarter of 1999. The final product is expected to ship in 2000 and pricing will be announced at that time. The first version of DirXML will support Novell's NetWare 5 and Microsoft NT operating system environments, with support for Sun Solaris and Linux platforms to follow soon after the initial release." For details, see the press release and the document "DirXML Frequently Asked Questions." See also the announcement "Novell Provides First Directory Solution for Linking Business Data To Electronic Business Applications. Novell Solution Brings All Data Together. Allows Rightful Owners to Control Information Using Industry Standard XML." Compare: 'Directory Services Markup Language (DSML), announced by Bowstreet.

Hosted By
OASIS - Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards

Sponsored By

IBM Corporation
ISIS Papyrus
Microsoft Corporation
Oracle Corporation


XML Daily Newslink
Receive daily news updates from Managing Editor, Robin Cover.

 Newsletter Subscription
 Newsletter Archives
Globe Image

Document URI:  —  Legal stuff
Robin Cover, Editor: