|Last modified: September 21, 2002|
|OASIS Rights Language|
Update: The OASIS Rights Language TC was closed (deactivated) on July 29, 2004.
[May 18, 2002]
Technical Committee Proposal. A Rights Language Technical Committee Proposal published on March 25, 2002 was made to OASIS on behalf of ContentGuard, Hewlett Packard, Microsoft, Reuters, and Verisign employees. Initially chaired by Hari Reddy of ContentGuard, the proposed TC will "continue work previously done by ContentGuard, Inc. on XrML to define the industry standard for a rights language that supports a wide variety of business models and has an architecture that provides flexibility to address the needs of the diverse communities." The TC will "define a governance and language extension development process for the language that comprehends maintaining an evergreen language while minimizing the impact of change on all market participants." It will also define relationships with complementary standards efforts within OASIS and establish liaisons with standards bodies. ContentGuard, which has copyrights to the XrML 2.0 specification and schema, will submit the Extensible Rights Markup Language™ (XrML™) Version 2.0 to the TC at the initial meeting, March 21, 2002.
Rationale. Rationale for the proposed "worldwide standard digital rights language" is given in the proposal by noting that this language "will facilitate the interoperability of the systems that manage the creation, distribution and consumption of these digital works and services. It will also be an integral tool in declaring and implementing trust and authentication mechanisms... The need for a standard rights language has been recognized in a number of organizations that develop technical standards for different types of content in many different domains. For example: (1) Open eBook Forum -- eBooks; (2) MPEG -- multimedia content; (3) TV Anytime -- multimedia content in a specific domain; (4) Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) -- multimedia content in a specific domain; (5) PRISM -- periodical print publishing; (6) Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers --- Digital Cinema; (7) NewsML -- news agency content, print publishing. Additionally, fields such as healthcare (HIPPA compliance) and financial services (SEC regulations compliance) have now recognized the need for the ability to express usage and access rights for documents, records and services."
TC Deliverables. According to the March 2002 proposal, the primary deliverables of the Rights Language TC will be:
- To release the rights language Schema with supporting implementation information.
- To develop and execute governance process for managing the continuing improvements to the language.
- To provide liaisons to other complementary standards bodies.
- Policies defining the creation of extensions to the language
- Definition of a subset or mapping of the rights language for mobile consumer electronic devices.
- Definition of common methods for integration of the rights language with metadata standards, content/service identification standards, and content referencing standards.
- Definition of common methods for integration of the rights language with authentication, crypto and PKI standards for econtent distribution and for web services.
XrML Copyrights, Trademarks, and Patents. The XrML specification owned by ContentGuard is subject to legal encumbrance embodied in various IP claims, including trademarks (XrML™, eXtensible rights Markup Language™), copyrights, and patents. According to the proposal, "ContentGuard has copyrights to the XrML 2.0 specification and schema (including previous releases) along with a trademark on the name 'XrML'. ContentGuard also owns US Patents 5,638,443, 5,634,012, 5,715,403, and 5,629,980 which have claims that may necessarily be infringed by the use of the contribution. ContentGuard will grant OASIS permission to use the trademark 'XrML' for the use of the TC and associated promotion and marketing. ContentGuard's contribution will be submitted with the following intellectual property rights statement: 'ContentGuard agrees to offer a license, on reasonable and nondiscriminatory terms, to use any patent claim of US Patents 5,638,443, 5,634,012, 5,715,403, and 5,629,980 and which is necessarily infringed by the use of the contribution.' ContentGuard has contributed/submitted the XrML specification to other standards organizations (e.g., to MPEG-21 and TV-Anytime) as well as to OASIS. According to industry analysts and (reported) statements from ContentGuard executives, ContentGuard is expected to "extract license fees from vendors implementing whatever rights language emerges from OASIS' standards process. The terms and conditions of the license will depend on the implementation, and ContentGuard has pledged that it will license XrML to other vendors under reasonable and nondiscriminatory [so-called 'RAND'] terms..."
- Governance/Liaison. Chairs: Peter Shirling and Brad Gandee
- Requirements. Chairs: Bob Glushko and Hari Reddy
- Core and Standard Extension Specification. Chairs: Thomas DeMartini and John Erickson
- Examples. Chairs: Bob DuCharme and TBD [2002-05-23]
- Profiles. Chairs: Thomas DeMartini
- Extensions Process and Models SC. Chairs: M. Paramasivam ("Parama")
- Document Repository
- Extensible Rights Markup Language (XrML) version 2.1. Submission in a ZIP file [2002-05-21] by ContentGuard to OASIS RLTC. Document date: 2002-05-20. Document files date: 2002-05-17.
- Extensible rights Markup Language (XrML) Core 2.1 Specification. May 20, 2002. See the ZIP file for canonical source.
- Extensible rights Markup Language (XrML) Standard Extension 2.1 Specification. See the ZIP file for canonical source.
- XrML 2.1 Core XML Schema
- XrML 2.1 Standard Extension XML Schema
- See other details in the news item 2002-05-29. [cache ZIP archive]
- "XrML 2.1 Technical Overview." Draft version 0.1. May 20, 2002. By ContentGuard Holdings, Inc. 16 pages. See the associated posting.
Requirements: Requirements documents were submitted by various entities for evaluation by the RLTC Requirements subcommittee.
Analysis of submissions to the Rights Language Requirements Subcommittee. Most of the relevant documents are accessible via the mail archives. See from the 2002-08-27 posting of Hari Reddy to 'email@example.com':
- "RLTC Requirements SC Collected Requirements Analysis." Working Document. Referenced in Version 10 of 'RLTC Requirements.doc'. August 27, 2002. Also in Excel spreadsheet format.
- Rights Language Technical Committee (RLTC) Requirements. August 27, 2002. "An attached matrix contains the collected requirements. This document explains the analysis process and contains the actual RLTC requirements. Each requirement received is numbered and is cross-referenced throughout the analysis process." Also in Word .DOC format.
- Cross Reference Matrix. August 27, 2002. Also in Excel spreadsheet format.
Contributed requirements statements. See the mail archives or document repository for additional submissions.
"XACML - Summary of Use Cases." September 7, 2001. Version 0.2. Edited by Suresh Damodaran and Carlisle Adams for the OASIS Extensible Access Control Markup Language TC. Hal Lockhart wrote in the posting: "My research so far has led me to the tentative conclusion that Digital Rights Management is a subset of the general field of Access Control..." [posting]
XACML Use Cases. 45 pages. September 9, 2001.
"OeBF Rights Grammar Requirements Required Rights Features for Digital Books." Rights and Rules Working Group. Open eBook Forum. May 2002. 37 pages. See "Open Ebook Initiative." [posting]
OeBF Rights and Rules Working Group 'Matched Requirements'. Aligns requirements from AAP, EBX, ContentGuard, and Reuters; constructs a set of Unified Requirement where possible. 44 pages.
"MPEG-21 Requirements for a Rights Data Dictionary and a Rights Expression Language." ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11/N4336. 33 pages. See "MPEG Rights Expression Language." [posting]
"Requirements for a Rights Data Dictionary and Rights Expression Language." From Reuters. [June 2001.] 67 pages. See the posting.
ODRL Initiative Response to OASIS Rights TC Requirements. Edited by Renato Iannella. 2002-08-09. Cf. "Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL)."
Supporting Limits on Copyright Exclusivity in a Rights Expression Language Standard. A Requirements Submission to the OASIS Rights Language TC." By Deirdre K. Mulligan and Aaron Burstein, with John Erickson (Principal Scientist, Digital Media Systems Lab, Hewlett-Packard Laboratories). August 13, 2002. 17 pages. Comments submitted by the Samuelson Law, Technology & Public Policy Clinic on behalf of the Clinic and the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC). Also available in original Word/.DOC format.
Enshrining Fair Use in DRM: Submission to the OASIS Rights Technical Committee. By: Cory Doctorow (Electronic Frontier Foundation). August 14, 2002. Version: 1.5.
"IEEE Intellectual Property Committee on Copy Control Systems." Draft Position Paper. Submitted on behalf of IEEE by Mike Godwin. 2002-08-22. A "near-final draft of the IEEE Intellectual Property Committee's position statement on Copy Control Systems, also known as systems implementing Digital Rights Management."
TV-Anytime Forum Specification Series: S-1. On Phase 1 Benchmark Features. Document SP001v11 TVAF S-1 [SP001V1.1]. Date: 21 December, 2001. 29 pages. See the corresponding posting from Brad Gandee: "Attached are the two of the documents ... that our liaison at TV Anytime Forum says are relevant for the purpose of extracting requirements." See "TV Anytime Forum." RLTC sources: ZIP package, Word .DOC.
TV-Anytime Forum Specification Series: S-2, System Description (Informative, with mandatory Appendix B). Reference: SP002v1.2. Date: 5 April 2002. 39 pages. See preceding. RLTC source: ZIP package, Word .DOC.
"TV-Anytime Call for Contributions On New Content Types, Targeting and Redistribution. TV-Anytime Phase Two. Document reference: TV122r2. Date: 05-Apr-2002. From the Liaison Statement: "Attached to and referred from this document are several TV-Anytime Forum documents, which propose the business scenarios and requirements captured from the mass-market high volume audio-visual storage perspective, for the RLTC to consider for your requirement gathering and language design. These documents are TV-Anytime 1) S-1 Application Scenarios, 2) S-2 System Description, and 3) the Phase Two CFC. TV-Anytime Forum would be interested in incorporating or referring to a standard digital rights language when it becomes available..." See preceding.
EbXML Registry Use Cases. Extracted from the XACML Use Case submission (see above).
HL7 Use Cases. Extracted from the XACML Use Case submission (see above).
[September 18, 2002] "DRM Requirements for Research and Education: Discussion Paper." September 4, 2002. 15 pages. Forwarded 2002-09-18 to the OASIS RLTC by Ms. Mairéad Martin (Director, Advanced Internet Technologies, Office of Research & Information Technology, The University of Tennessee). Prepared for the NSF Middleware Initiative and Digital Rights Management Workshop. "... does not yet include input from the participants at the NMI and DRM Workshop held on Sept. 9, 2002. We will be revising this document based on the workshop discussions and feedback we have been receiving. We envision the revised document being ready in a four to eight week timeframe." Source message/PDF.
Second F2F Meeting. September 12, 2002. Milpitas, California.
First F2F TC meeting. ContentGuard Offices, 6500 Rock Spring Drive, Suite 110, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
- [April 3, 2002] "Contentguard Contributes XrML to OASIS Standards Consortium. ContentGuard, HP, Microsoft, Reuters and VeriSign Among the First To Join the OASIS Rights Language Technical Committee."
- [April 2, 2002] "OASIS Members Form Technical Committee to Advance XML Rights Language. ContentGuard, HP, Microsoft, Reuters, Verisign, and Others Collaborate on Standard to Express Usage and Access Rights Across Industries."
- [March 25, 2002] "OASIS Members Propose a Rights Language Technical Committee."
- [March 25, 2002] Rights Language Technical Committee Proposal. In the "OASIS TC Call For Participation: Rights Language TC."
- [February 05, 2002] "XrML Under Review for the MPEG-21 Rights Expression Language (REL)."
- [November 27, 2001] "ContentGuard Releases XrML Version 2.0 and Submits Specification to Standards Bodies." [MPEG and TV Anytime]
Related Rights Languages
- Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL)
- "Extensible Rights Markup Language (XrML)."
- Digital Property Rights Language (DPRL)
- MPEG Rights Expression Language
- "<indecs>2rdd Consortium - Rights Data Dictionary."
- Extensible Media Commerce Language (XMCL)
- PRISM Rights Language (PRL)
- Open Ebook Initiative Rights and Rules Working Group (OeBF)
- Electronic Book Exchange (EBX) Working Group
DRM Patents, Copyright, and IP Licensing
- Patents and Open Standards
- US FTC/DOJ Hearings on the Implications of Competition and Patent Law and Policy
Digital Rights Activities/Products
- XML and Digital Rights Management (DRM)
- DRM Watch
- W3C Workshop on Digital Rights Management for the Web. January 22-23, 2001. INRIA - Sophia-Antipolis, France. See also (1) the Program Listing; (2) Submitted Position Papers; (3) Notes and Presentations; (4) Workshop Report.
Access Control, Security, and Encryption
- Extensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML)
- "Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML)."
- Security, Privacy, and Personalization
Privacy and Personalization [TBD]
[August 30, 2002] "OASIS XACML TC and Rights Language TC." By Hal Lockhart (Entegrity). Among the presentations given at the Forum on Security Standards for Web Services, Boston, 26 August, 2002. XACML and RLTC 'Forty Thousand Foot View': Both deal with the problem of Authorization; Both draw requirements from many of the same application domains; Both share many of the same concepts, but in some cases use different terms; Both base specification on XML Schema; Each approaches the problem differently. Types of Authorization Information:  Attribute Assertion (Properties of a system entity, typically a person; Relatively abstract - business context; Same attribute used in multiple resource decisions; Examples: X.509 Attribute Certificate, SAML Attribute Statement, XrML PossessProperty);  Authorization Policy (Specifies all the conditions required for access; Specifies the detailed resources and actions/rights; Can apply to multiple subjects, resources, times...; Examples: XACML Policy, XrML License, X.509 Policy Certificate);  AuthZ Decision (Expresses the result of a policy decision; Specifies a particular access that is allowed; Intended for immediate use; Example: SAML AuthZ Decision Statement). Web Services Security:  SAML, XACML and RLTC Spec can all convey AuthZ Info, carry in SOAP header  Possible use in Policy Advertisement  Issues: Substantial overlap between SAML/XACML & XrML - not clear what is best for what use; Intellectual Property Issues; Controversies over DRM itself; XACML and XrML are complex, will take time to understand. [source .PPT]