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Keywords: object-oriented databases, text markup, electronic publishing One of the challenges of electronic publishing is getting the information into the right format for the particular publishing strategy being pursued. Another is keeping up with the fast pace of change as new technologies are developed that offer more or better ways of electronically publishing information.
This paper reports on the experience of the Summer Institute of Linguistics in developing electronic publishing solutions for its LinguaLinks product (SIL 1996). LinguaLinks is an electronic performance support system designed to assist field workers with a wide range of tasks related to language learning, language analysis, and language development.
The paper first introduces the LinguaLinks model of performance support and CELLAR--the object-oriented database system that is used to implement it. Our approach to electronic publishing is to first build the information as a structure of objects in the database, and then to use multiple CELLAR stylesheets to map the information onto multiple markup schemes. The object database thus serves as a springboard that allows us to vault the information into any number of formats for publishing.
The paper illustrates this approach to electronic publishing by focusing on one application area that LinguaLinks supports, namely, lexical database development. It first shows how the tutorial and reference documents that give help on how to build a dictionary are mapped onto different markup schemes for publication as a Folio Views infobase, a Windows help system, and an HTML Web document. It then shows how the dictionaries that are built by using LinguaLinks are mapped onto HTML markup to provide a display format on the Web and onto TEI markup to provide a richer format for information interchange and archiving.
LinguaLinks is designed to support tasks in the domains of anthropology, language learning, linguistics, literacy, and sociolinguistics. Work continues to add more and more resources in subsequent versions of the product. In version 1.0, one of the areas that is most deeply developed is lexical database management. This component includes a data management tool that helps the user to build a lexical database and then to use the information in that database to produce dictionaries for publication.
LinguaLinks takes advantage of the object-oriented paradigm to provide performance support that is tailored to what the user is trying to do. One of the hardest problems in offering electronic performance support is knowing just what the user is trying to do. For instance, if a word processing program were being used to write a dictionary, it would be very difficult to implement performance support that could sense the context within a dictionary entry and offer appropriate help. By building a dictionary in an object-oriented database, however, two kinds of performance support fall out naturally.
First, the software developers have performed an object- oriented analysis (Coad and Yourdon 1991, Booch 1994) with domain experts in order to build the conceptual model for the database. The definitions of object classes (including their attributes) that make up this model provide performance support by guiding the user to create dictionary entries that are structured like ones the domain experts would have built; these definitions also prevent ill-formed entries from being constructed.
Second, the software always knows what the user is working on by observing what object and attribute is currently selected or being editing. Thus if the etymology is being edited, the system knows to offer tutorial and reference material on how to write etymologies when the user asks for help. When the user switches focus to the part of speech, then the focus of help also switches to that aspect of dictionary making, and so on for all the parts of the conceptual model of a dictionary entry.
Section 2 of the paper gives an overview of the object- oriented database system that is used to implement performance support in LinguaLinks. Section 3 describes how the object database is used as a springboard to markup for electronic publishing. Section 4 then shows how the tutorial and reference materials are mapped into markup in order to support multiple strategies for providing performance support. Section 5 in turn shows how the dictionaries built by users can be mapped into markup for multiple publishing strategies.
An application in CELLAR is a declarative model of the problem domain. A complete domain model has the following four components:
In this application, each visual model generates a display format that happens to be a markup scheme for a particular electronic publishing system. For each class of object, a view is defined that declares how the information in that object is to be mapped onto the display format. All of the views that cooperate to define a single visual model are collected together into a stylesheet.
In this section, the full paper will present some source code examples that illustrate how the views can be made to map objects onto markup.
Coad, Peter and Edward Yourdon. 1991. Object-oriented analysis. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Gery, Gloria J. 1991. Electronic performance support systems. Boston: Weingarten Publications.
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SIL. 1996. LinguaLinks: electronic helps for language field work (Version 1.0). CD-ROM. Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics. See also http://www.sil.org/lingualinks.
Simons, Gary F. 1996. The nature of linguistic data and the requirements of a computing environment for linguistic research. Dutch studies on Near Eastern languages and literatures 2(1):111-128. Also to appear in John Lawler and Helen Dry (eds.), Using computers in linguistics: a practical guide. Routledge.
Simons, Gary F. In press. Conceptual modeling versus visual modeling: a technological key to building consensus. To appear in Computers and the Humanities.
Sperberg-McQueen, C. M. and Lou Burnard. 1994. Guidelines for electronic text encoding and interchange. Chicago and Oxford: Text Encoding Initiative.