THE SGML YEAR IN REVIEW 1992 by Yuri Rubinsky, SoftQuad Inc STANDARDS ACTIVITY 1. The highlight of the SGML year, I think most people would agree, was the adoption of HyTime as an international standard. Sort of like a child born already having been accepted into a good university, HyTime has been considered for some time a necessary component of many initiatives, including the grand old US DoD CALS. I think we're going to see an outburst of activity and creativity revolving around HyTime over the next year. The standard will be published shortly by ISO in Geneva. Copies will be available from national standards bodies like ANSI and BSI; there will probably be a few authorized redistributors like GCA and TechnoTeacher. 2. Conformance Testing Initiative: Spearheaded by the GCA in the US and the National Computing Centre in the UK, the SGML conformance testing initiative slowly but surely attempts to gather the momentum (and money) it needs to proceed. There seems to be general agreement that independent testing of SGML capabilities is needed (with some vocal exceptions citing examples of the market deciding what conformance means) but no agreement whatsoever on where the money should come from. Nonetheless, the GCA GenCode Committee continues to explore the possibilities. 3. The SGML Review: ISO regulations call for a review of each standard around the time of its 5th birthday. That review will continue over the next few months; Dr. Goldfarb is chairing the Special Working Group on SGML and invites comments and suggestions. 4. From Jim Mason, Convenor of WG8, comes the following news clip: "There are two query languages for SGML documents being developed in ISO/IEC JTC1/SC18/WG8: HyQ, as part of HyTime, ISO 10744; and an unnamed language as part of DSSSL, ISO/DIS 10179. We are developing two languages because these two standards, while they both manipulate SGML documents, are partially complementary in scope and functionality. DSSSL deals with pure SGML files. Although HyTime requires the `hub document' to be in SGML, subsidiary documents may be in any format, including binary digitized audio or graphics. DSSSL and HyQ both operate on property sets defined in SGML. DSSSL's location model is entirely in terms of SGML structures (where an element is in the tree, its relationships to its siblings, and so on). HyTime also needs to deal with finite coordinate spaces (this happens three seconds after that). As of the September meeting of WG8, we feel that in areas of simultaneous interest, there should be simple mappings between the languages." 5. DSSSL, which I hope will be the highlight of next year's Year in Review, is expected to go out for a second draft ballot about April, 1993. USER GROUP ACTIVITY 1. Here's a good piece of "you heard it here first" news: Today, [Oct. 26, day one of SGML '92] on the other side of the planet, that is, about 12 hours from now, the Australian National SGML User Group is being formally incorporated under the name SGML OZ. Chaired by Carlyle Nagel, the group's inaugural sponsor is Xerox Australia, who, in Carlyle's words, "provide the tea and biscuits". Congratulations to that group on this exciting and co- incidental day 2. A Mid-Atlantic SGML Users' Group has been formed, catering to SGML Users' living in Atlantis. Well, the Washington D.C. area actually. 3. With the International SGML Users' Group having started in the United Kingdom, it was often easy for everyone to think of the International group as meeting the needs of a local chapter, but of course local chapters have a separate role to fulfill, and accordingly those big islands finally have their own U.K. SGML Users' Group with Nigel Bray as Chairman. 4. The Southern Ontario User Group (covering a broad sweep of area more or less centered on World-Series-winning Toronto, Canada) recently held a successful vendor day and continues to publish its newsletter. 5. A Seattle User Group has begun, under the sponsership of DEC. 6. Meanwhile in Colorado, what I mentioned last year as the planned Boulder SGML User Group finally got off the ground last month with its first meeting and a working name of The Rocky Mountain SGML Entity. 7. The Dutch Chapter of the SGML Users Group reports that it had a difficult year, due to the resignation of Dieke Van Wijnen as secretary of the Group. In September the group found a new secretary and now activities are resuming, including on November 25th, a one day conference on the managerial implications of the introduction of SGML applications. On December 9th, the annual meeting of the group will be held. MAJOR PUBLIC INITIATIVES 1. The Air Transport Association/Aerospace Industries Association subcommittee responsible for text standards has just released Revision 31 of Specification 100. This standard includes six DTDs covering a range of technical maintenance publications (including Aircraft Maintenance Manuals, Engine Ship Manuals and Service Bulletins). The new spec also includes a DTD Requirements Document and an SGML Data Dictionary (an industry-wide list of reusable elements and attributes). 2. Latest news on the CALS front is that MIL-M-28001B is expected to be released about March. Revision B will include significant changes in the Appendix B Output Specification, a tagging scheme for partial document delivery requirements, and a tagging scheme meeting the requirements for electronic annotation and review requirements. MIL-STD-1840B availability will be announced at CALS Expo '92. It is expected to provide more flexibility in data delivery such as accomodating other data types, device-independence, and tape medium. 3. The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) is funding the TIDE (Technology Initiative for Disabled and Elderly people) Pilot Action. Within TIDE, the Communication and Access to Information for Persons with Special Needs (CAPS) project started in December 1991, and will last until the end of March 1993. This project's main objective is to provide broader access to digitally distributed documents (especially newspapers, books and public information) to a significant group of handicapped and elderly persons who have difficulty in accessing the printed word and/or electronic information. The print disabled group includes the blind, the deaf blind, the visually impaired, the dyslexic and those with motor impairments that make it difficult to physically control paper documents or to use traditional methods for computer access. Working with the CAPS committee, Manfred Kruger of MID has written a DTD for electronic delivery of newspapers including such interesting and once-you-think-about-it-perfectly-sensible constructs as an entity for an "invisible blank". This is the character that tells a voice synthesizer to break the current word into parts which are pronounced separately. 4. In a related item, a related committee with some overlapping membership, a working sub-committee of the International Committee for Accessible Document Design, has completed a draft DTD to support the formatting of braille from SGML. This DTD was accepted by the full committee last week and will now go forth to the Texas legislature to become part of state law regarding accessible electronic versions of all textbooks approved for use in the state educational system. Anyone interested in learning how to make new or existing DTDs "braille-ready" should contact the author at SoftQuad. (+1 416 239-4801) 5. In a single year, the Davenport Group, as part of its "Davenport Advisory Standard for Hypermedia (DASH)" activity, started (in January) and by December will have completed the design and publication of a set of HyTime-based SGML architectural forms, tentatively dubbed the "Standard Open Formal Architecture for Browsing Electrical Documents," for the standard representation of indexes, tables of contents, glossaries, and cross references, for use with online documentation on Unix and Unix-like Open Systems. Unix International, the Open Software Foundation, Novell and others participated in this development, and the Open Software Foundation is probably going to implement the SOFABED architectural forms immediately. 6. X Consortium, the people who brought you X-Windows, has been presented with a protocol, proposed by Kent Summers of EJV and Jeff Vogel of EBT, for online help servers. The proposal puts forward a scheme which takes advantage of the hierarchical tendencies of SGML models but also can support anything else that has a notion of unique identifiers. 7. As evidenced by the turnout from the drug industry at SGML '92, there is strong interest in SGML from the point of view of the manufacturers and of the US Federal Drug Administration. Simultaneous with the first two days of this conference is a CANDA (Computed-Assisted New Drug Applications) conference in Washington, at which they are discussing SGML. The FDA has said it wants electronic submissions of New Drug Applications by 1995 and is interested in experimenting with SGML. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association Task Force has suggested an SGML pilot project. 8. The CAD Framework Initiative (CFI a good example of a nested acronym) has a task force to develop a semiconductor industry SGML application for use in transferring component documentation within the industry. This group deserves special mention for its formal name: CAD Framework Initiative Design Information Technical Committee Components Information Representation Technical Subcommittee Electronic Data Book Working Group Technical Documentation Interchange Standard Task Force. 9. The US Congress' 1990 Clean Air Act requires that by 1996 car manufacturers provide all emissions system documentation to anyone who requests it. That will be done in SGML, in an application known as J2008 and created by a subcommittee of the Society of Automotive Engineers. 10. Formatting images for CD-ROM publishing and other electronic image management systems can be made easier if there is an organized scheme to follow. The Association for Information and Image Management C15.9 standards committee members are developing a scheme for generating image tags, based on Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), that will be compatible with numerous image indexing and retrieval products. The objective of the project is to assist users by providing a versatile path for converting image files into other publishing systems' proprietary formats or database files. The project is entitled Compact Disk Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) Application Profile For Electronic Image Management (EIM). 11. A healthy collection of standards bodies, including AFNOR, BSI, DIN and the IEEE are all looking at using (and modifying as necessary) the DTD in the "ISO Technical Report 9573: Techniques for Using SGML" for standards creation and production. The Canadian Standards Association is developing, with InfoDesign, a new SGML-based information and publishing system, currently in pilot test phase, to encompass all facets of the standards development process at CSA. When complete, the information and publishing system will allow all data relevant to a document to be created directly in SGML allowing its retrieval in both view-only format and editable SGML text, and publishing to both hardcopy and CD-ROM directly from SGML. 12. The Text Encoding Initiative is nearing completion of the second version, much after the hoped-for date, but correspondingly more thorough and well thought out. A number of major commercial publishers are encoding considerable volumes of material in TEI (Chadwyck-Healey and Oxford University Press, among others). 13. The European Workgroup on SGML is working on a DTD for scientific journal articles, the so called MAJOUR Article DTD (Modular Application for JOURnals). This DTD is based on the AAP Article DTD and is intended as an exchange format between scientific publishers, typesetter and printers, and database hosts. Since last year, when the MAJOUR Header DTD was presented at the International Markup Conference 1991 in Lugano, the EWS has been working on the Article DTD, particularly body, tables, figures, math, and back matter. The first draft version was finished in February '92. Work on individual parts and the documentation is still going on. The MAJOUR Article DTD is scheduled to be finished by the end of the year and will be presented at International Markup 1993. The EWS is trying to take into account and harmonize its own work as far as possible with the work and the results of other initiatives in the field such as the AAP Tables/Math Update Committee and the AAP Article DTD Update. 14. In April, Pam Gennusa of Database Publishing made a presentation on SGML to the Text Working Party of the International Press Telecommunications Council in London. In May, the Associated Press hosted a seminar to introduce SGML to North American print and broadcast media and vendors. At the June meeting of the IPTC working parties and Standards Committee in Toronto, the AP presented an initial draft of NIML, a News Industry Markup Language, intended as a first step towards a full SGML implementation for news text. The NIML draft has since been republished in SGML News in Australia, and been added to the libraries on CompuServe's Journalism Forum. The IPTC has formed a joint SGML working party with the Newspaper Association of America and the Radio- Television News Directors Association. MAJOR CORPORATIONS & GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES 1. The US Department of Energy has adopted SGML as its standard for electronic exchange of scientific and technical information and the Office of Scientific and Technical Information in Oak Ridge, Tennessee has been selected as the facilitating organization. Various DOE organizations and contracters are already participating in this effort and proposals have been submitted for the backbone system. 2. The Australian Parliament has just completed a review of its publishing needs and has recommended SGML for the daily publication of Hansard and supporting documentation. The Australian Attorney General's Office is ramping up its use of SGML, and the Australian Tax Office has an SGML pilot project going which, if successful, will spread across the department. The Australian Defense Publishing Group (DPUBS) has installed a CD-ROM manufacturing facility, which is migrating to SGML. 3. The U.S. Navy Defense Printing Service purchased an SGML- based publishing system to be deployed at all printing service sites, DoD-wide under the ADMAPS (Automated Document Management and Publishing System) program. Under the EDRADS (Electronic Document Retrieval and Distribution System) program, the Navy is populating a document database of all Military Specifications and Standards by scanning and applying SGML tagging. The U.S. Navy has begun a study on conversion of logistics support analysis material directly to Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals. 4. Agfa won the 910S award to develop DTDs and FOSIs for US Air Force Administrative material (and conversion of 10,000 pages). With Agfa's recent re-organization announcements, the fate of this award is, so to speak, up in the air. 5. JCALS the US DoD publishing system architecture contract was awarded this year to a project team headed by Computer Sciences Corporation. With an estimated value over 10 years of $750 million, JCALS is intended to provide systems which will then be duplicated thoughout the DoD to receive contractor data encoded to CALS standards. When complete, the system will be the world's largest integrated information retrieval, document database, editing and publishing system, consisting of hundreds of sites with tens of thousands of users. 6. In Holland, Fokker Aircraft is working on a CALS-like SGML implementation. 7. The Dutch Petroleum Company (NAM) owned by Shell and Exxon has begun implementing an SGML application. 8. Wolters Kluwer Law, has completed conversion of the entire Law Database of Dutch legislation into SGML and is now converting its looseleaf operation. 9. Sumitomo Bank Capital Markets of New York City reports that it would not be capable of maintaining its current volume of business without the links between its structured database data and its unstructured data that SGML provides. Frank Deutschmann writes: "Over the course of the year ... we have moved ALL wordprocessing activities into the SGML environment (currently ArborText's Publisher). Our business (trading derivative financial products) involves detailed legal documentation for each trade (dozens a day), and all documentation is now generated and stored in SGML format. I believe that we are one of the first serious users of SGML ... literally our whole business is based on SGML." 10. In New York City and London, MarketScope, Standard & Poor's electronic market analysis service, is being launched simultaneously through three on-line distribution services with three different formatting requirements all from a common SGML source (created in SoftQuad Author/Editor). 11. In France, Bull is creating its user documentation in SGML using an editorial system centered an Ingres database, and geared to producing both paper and a CD-ROM. 12. Aerospatiale, with the help of AIS, has built a ground based ELS (Electronic Library System) to take maintenance manuals and transform them both automatically and manually into documents needed by Air Inter, the national airline owned by Air France. Aerospatiale is to deliver the final system within the next month. The system will also be available to other airlines. 13. Delta's TOPS System is up and running, producing native SGML job cards. The system takes Boeing data into Datalogics' tagger, using an older version of ATA Spec 100 DTD. 14. USAir is building a native SGML application for Service Bulletins and other internal documents using IBM's TextWrite. 15. Boeing will be producing Service Bulletins in SGML and has provided a complete maintenance manual as test data to the airlines. 16. At the ATA Digital Maintenance Conference last month, 160 people from 60 airlines saw Digital Service Bulletins on SGI computers with Arbortext's SGML Editor and MS Windows and Macintosh versions of SoftQuad Author/Editor. All computer platforms demonstrated the same business process: Service Bulletin content being edited and re-ordered to become Engineering Orders. 17. The Laboratory for Library and Information Science at Linkoping University in Sweden is working with the Swedish Defense Research Establishment in using HyTime to model dynamic structures in crisis management systems incorporating, for instance, information from geographical information systems. 18. John Duke of Virginia Commonwealth University, and consultant George Alexander, a member of the original AAP committee, are working on a project to convert the second edition of the Anglo- American Cataloguing Rules. (AACR2) to an SGML file. AACR2 is maintained by an international committee and codifies the rules that librarians throughout the world use to describe materials in their collections. The electronic version of AACR2 will be used not only to produce future print versions of the constantly changing rules, but to develop software for online versions linked to other cataloguing tools, for tutorial programs, and for other research tools. Value-added developers of AACR2-e may develop linkages to other products, such as the LC Rule Interpretations or the MARC format documents. 19. The Department of Statistics at North Carolina State University will be publishing The Journal of Statistics Education, a newly organized electronic journal that will maintain journal materials using SGML. Some assistance to authors will be provided in producing the SGML documents, at least in the short-term. The first issue of the JSE is targeted for July 1993. The editors plan on using a modified version of the AAP journal DTD. 20. SRC, the Semiconductor Research Corporation funds university research and "pre-publishes" the results to its member sponsors. It has said it will start delivering those findings electronically in SGML by the end of this academic year. The DTDs are done. 21. The Caterpillar Service Information System (SIM) project is based on 11 DTDs and includes file system management software developed by InfoDesign. To date, the system has received, verified and catalogued more than 350,000 pages of converted SGML text and graphics. A second project, the Caterpillar File Management System (FMS) built with Computer Sciences Corporation, a distributed, SGML- based information management system, is now being implemented. 22. Microstar Software of Ottawa has received funding for a two year research project in the area of SGML tools from the Canadian Department of National Defense. 23. This year Microsoft released a CD-ROM multimedia package, entitled "Cinemania" integrating several books about movies into one complex reference source. Microsoft and Exoterica's consulting group used SGML as an enabling technology in the preparation of text data. 24. Mead Data Central has begun work on what may be the largest non-government SGML application in the world. Over the next 2 years, they will be converting between 200 and 250 million documents into SGML using 4,000 or more DTDs and 8,000 or more FOSIs. 25. SunSoft, the Sun software subsidiary, is using SGML in its online publishing tools. Documents in several popular electronic publishing formats will be converted into online information similar to SunSoft's AnswerBook online documentation product. 26. A company called FLUKE reports that it has built a filter for its "Standard Input File Format" where it attempts to keep a writer's file as close to ASCII text as possible and then implies the markup to take it into an Agfa CAPS System. 27. The Cooperative Extension System, which includes the U.S. Department of Agriculture Extension Service, 77 land-grant universities and 3100 county offices, has appointed a working group to develop a standard for encoding publications using SGML. Extension publications include technical reports, fact sheets, and pamphlets on agriculture, horticulture, home economics, youth development many of which incorporate images, tables, charts and graphs. In addition, USDA Extension Service is supplementing its paper distribution system with electronic distribution over the Internet. Documents will be encoded with SGML and formatted on request for a variety of display technologies. PUBLICATIONS 1. Joan Smith, leader of the CALS in Europe Special Interest Group and one of the founding fathers and mothers of SGML, has a new book just out, called SGML and Related Standards published in the UK by Ellis Horwood and distributed in North America by Simon & Schuster. 2. Oxford University Press has indicated to Charles Goldfarb that The SGML Handbook has gone back to press for a second edition. 3. Eric von Hervijnen's book Practical SGML has sold 3000 copies. The Japanese edition of the book was published this year by the Japanese SGML Forum. Eric is now working on a second edition which will also be available electronically in Dynatext, incorporating the ARCSGML parser with buttons that will allow you to parse the book's examples. A wonderful case of using available SGML technology technology beyond simply representing pages. 4. SGML Inc., the editorial team behind <TAG>, the SGML Newsletter, entered into an agreement whereby the GCA publishes the newsletter. Another sign of SGML's continued growth is the fact that <TAG> is now published monthly. 5. The CALS Journal, a glossy colour magazine devoted to the world-wide CALS initiative and with continuous coverage of SGML in CALS, is now completing its first year of publication. 6. Interesting and exciting SGML coverage in the mainstream: BYTE magazine's June issue had a cover section on "Infoglut" which included articles devoted to SGML by Steve DeRose and Lou Reynolds of Electronic Book Technologies and Chris Locke and Haviland Wright of Avalanche. The November '92 issue of Unix World includes that magazine's first major mention of SGML in its Standards column. 7. The Seybold Report's coverage of SGML activities continues to grow, recently with Mark Walter's long piece on September 7th describing both Silicon Graphic's and Novell's committment to SGML: "If we've been writing a lot about the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) lately, it's because a lot is happening. The latest ringing endorsement of the standard: Silicon Graphics and Novell will be converting their hardware and software documentation into SGML for delivering the manuals on CD-ROM. The adoption of SGML by two big-name computer gear suppliers both of whom had ready access to vendor-based solutions reflects a growing awareness of the intellectual and business advantages to putting critical information in a rich, portable form. Adoption of SGML by the computer industry could spur more widespread use and change the face of electronic delivery software development." 8. The November 18th Management Edition of Newsweek which is sent to 3/4 million management subscribers includes an article by Chris Locke placing SGML in perspective for managers. Locke describes reasons why computer automation "has largely failed to increase productivity" and goes on to say: "A solution to both problems universal document interchange and the explicit encoding of document structure is rapidly arriving from a largely unheard of quarter. The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is being adopted with surprising speed by companies such as WordPerfect, Novell Frame Technologies, Interleaf, Silicon Graphics, Digital Equipment, and Sony. The reason that this open, non-proprietary international standard is situated at the heart of so many development efforts is its ability to represent a rich set of document structures and relate them to a humanly meaningful whole." VENDOR ANNOUNCEMENTS A couple of announcements this year suggest activity among vendors that signal, I think, SGML's movement into the mainstream: 1. The WordPerfect Corporation, market leaders in the wordprocessing world, demonstrated their SGML-conforming version of UNIX WordPerfect, both at TechDoc and the recent Seybold Conference. The product is in its beta test period now and will be ported to MS-DOS next year. 2. Adobe Systems has launched its Carousel product, which accurately displays PostScript fonts and pages irrespective of the computing platform they're sent to. Although there have been no formal announcements, statements made at the Seybold Conference by John Warnock and Adobe Vice President, Bill Spaller, indicate that sometime next year a new version of Carousel will be released with some SGML smarts. 3. TechnoTeacher, Inc. demonstrated a prototype of its "HyMinder" Hytime engine at TechDoc Winter 1992 last February. TechnoTeacher expects to release the "HyMinder" product along with its SGML document object library (called "MarkMinder") during the first quarter of 1993. 4. Quark, maker of Quark Express, has produced an alpha version of a filter that exports Quark files in SGML-encoded form in conformance with the ICADD Minimal DTD (for Braille). Other vendors who have made announcements this year include: AIS, Arbortext, Avalanche, Datalogics, EBT, Exoterica, Frame, Intergraph, Interleaf, Oster & Associates, SoftQuad, Unifilt, Zandar, and Westinghouse. MISCELLANEOUS 1. One sign of a growing market is the appearance of market analysis: InterConsult has released an "SGML Software Market Report" which divides the SGML market into useful sectors and attempts to gauge both current and future sales levels. The data is available both as a published document and with InterConsult- developed software called Intuition, which allows one to build one's own assumptions into a sophisticated analytical model. 2. The next item is a reprise of one of last year's. I ended this talk in 1991 by describing Michel Bielzinski's talk at the International Markup Conference. Well, a recent issue of <TAG> includes a very interesting piece by Michel on the same theme: a comparison of space and time in HyTime and Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. 3. In December 1992 Exoterica will be releasing a CD-ROM entitled "The Compleat SGML" containing the full text of ISO8879 integrating the 1988 amendment in online hypertext form. Accompanying this electronic reference will be thousands of sample SGML documents, comprising Exoterica's SGML conformance test suite. Several enormous documents will also be provided for benchmarking purposes. 4. CURIA, the ancient manuscript project of the Royal Irish Academy, has 6MB of text scanned and now being encoded from printed editions of annuals, sagas, poems and prose works in Irish Latin and Old Norse. 5. Dynatext is being used in a math course (differential geometry) at Brown University with interactive 3D graphics and a whole on-line text book. 6. This is surely one of the great tidbits of miscellaneous SGML news: At the recent mid-Atlantlic SGML User's Group meeting, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency announced that SGML is a strategic direction for the Agency. 7. Reaction was so good at the SGML '91 Conference to Tommie Usdin's paper cut-out dolls for modelling SGML content, that the GCA is now offering the package for sale. 8. An SGML and LaTex volunteer group managed by Chris Rowley, Ramer Schopf and Frank Mittelbach reports: "On top of this low level typesetting engine [LaTeX] we are building a high-level language `for specifying the formatting requirements of a class of structured documents' (i.e. for prescribing how to format a document which conforms to a particular DTD) and also implementing a `formatting engine' which uses the specified formatting to convert an input document into a PDL (primarily in TeX's DVI language, but this can be translated directly into quite `low-level' Post Script or PCL or ...) This will be, like the current LaTeX, a public domain system." 9. The Integrated Chameleon Architecture, a software system for generating translators to and from SGML DTDs, was made available for public release in March 1992. A user's guide is also available. Scheduled enhancements include the addition of a capability to import already existing DTDs and to specify attributes in DTDs. 10. CITRI, the Collaborative Information Technology Research Institute, a joint research arm of the University of Melbourne and the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, has been researching in the area of document retrieval. A group has developed an SGML based hypertext information retrieval system which uses tools such as Lector (University of Waterloo) and XGML (Exoterica) plus their own database engine, Atlas, to provide a platform for researching the retrieval of large, structured documents. 11. The SGML Project, based at Exeter University in the U.K., has continued to successfully promote the use of SGML within the U.K.'s academic and research community. During this last year, the members have given presentations on SGML to several universities, businesses and conferences, established a major electronic archive for SGML resources, and recently set-up an email discussion list for the U.K. community. They are actively seeking additional funding, and over the coming year intend to establish workgroups to define criteria for evaluating SGML software, to assess the software currently available, and to write the DTDs and translators required by the academic community. 12. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (a division of Caltech contracted to NASA) began a project in 1985 called Planetary Data System a project to catalog and archive planetary data. Thus far the project has only archived the plain ASCII text of accompanying documentation, but is now looking into determining the best way of archiving for the long term while making the documents associated with planetary data available in multiple output forms. SGML is being put forward as a possibility. Finally, with JPL involved, SGML has the opportunity to become a truly universal standard. Or at least galactic.