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The NCBI PubMed Project

NCBI standard publisher data format

This is our standard data format for publishers to use in submitting citation data to NCBI for processing into the MEDLINE or PubMed databases. This is a tagged format, meaning that each part of a citation is preceded by a <Tag> string and followed by a </Tag> string, where Tag is some appropriate label. The first two sections list the tags used and what information they enclose; the third gives an example. If you need further assistance, please email us at pubmed@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

Note! While we encourage the use of this format, we do not require it; any format that provides the same level of detail is adequate. If you wish to use another format, please email us and provide a sample.

This document contains:

The SGML Tags

Data Tags (R = Required, O = Optional) :

ArticleSet (R) An entire submission of the set of articles. Each issue of a given journal must be enclosed in these tags.
Article (R) An article submission. Each article must be enclosed in these tags.

Special Characters

Characters not in the standard ASCII character set must be represented using standard SGML entity codes. For instance, "&ccedil;" represents a c cedilla. "&rsquo;" in the example below is a right single-quote.


<Volume>271 suppl. 3</Volume>
<ArticleTitle>The Elasticity of a Single Supercoiled DNA Molecule</ArticleTitle>
Laboratoire de Biophysique de l’ADN, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 rue du Dr Roux, Paris, 75015 France. </Affiliation>
<Institution> Laboratoire de Physique Statistique de l&rsquo;ENS, </Institution>
<StreetAddress>24 rue Lhomond</StreetAddress>
<PublicationType>JOURNAL ARTICLE</PublicationType>
<FullTextURL> http://www.oup.co.uk/nar/Volume_24/Issue_02/5c0194_gml.abs.html </FullTextURL>
Single linear DNA molecules were bound at multiple sites at one extremity to a treated glass cover slip and at the other to a magnetic bead. The DNA was therefore torsionally constrained. A magnetic field was used to rotate the beads and thus to coil and pull the DNA. The stretching force was determined by analysis of the Brownian fluctuations of the bead. Here, the elastic behavior of individual &lgr; DNA molecules over- and underwound by up to 500 turns was studied. A sharp transition was discovered from a low to a high extension state at a force of ∼0.45 piconewtons for underwound molecules and at a force of ∼ 3 piconewtons for overwound ones. These transitions, probably reflecting the formation of alternative structures in stretched coiled DNA molecules, might be relevant for DNA transcription and replication.
magnetic field;DNA transcription;Elasticity


The following is a subset of the ISO 639 standard for language codes.

----    --------
DA      Danish
DE      German
EN      English
EL      Greek
ES      Spanish
FR      French
IT      Italian
IW      Hebrew
JA      Japanese
NL      Dutch
NO      Norwegian
RU      Russian
SV      Swedish
ZH      Chinese


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Credits: Brandon Brylawski, Alexander Levitsky

Last Modified: September 29, 1997