From: http://membled.com/work/apps/xmltv/cvs_working/xmltv.dtd Date: 2002-12-10 See: http://membled.com/work/apps/xmltv/
<!-- DTD for TV listings
This is a DTD to represent a TV listing. It doesn't explicitly group programmes by day or by channel, instead broadcast time and channel are attributes of the 'programme' element. Optionally, data about the TV channels used can be stored in 'channel' elements.
Data about a TV programme are stored in the subelements of element 'programme', but metadata such as when it will be broadcast are stored as attributes.
Many of the details have a 'lang' attribute so that you can store them in multiple languages or have mixed languages in a single listing. This 'lang' should be the two-letter code such as 'en' or 'fr_FR'. Or you can just leave it out and let your reader take a guess.
An example XML file for this DTD might look like this:
<tv generator-info-name="my listings generator"> <channel id="3sat.de"> <display-name lang="de">3SAT</display-name> </channel> <channel id="das-erste.de"> <display-name lang="de">ARD</display-name> <display-name lang="de">Das Erste</display-name> </channel>
<programme start="200006031633" channel="3sat.de"> <title lang="de">blah</title> <title lang="en">blah</title> <desc lang="de"> Blah Blah Blah. </desc> <credits> <director>blah</director> <actor>a</actor> <actor>b</actor> </credits> <date>19901011</date> <country>ES</country> <episode-num system="xmltv_ns">2 . 9 . 0/1</episode-num> <video> <aspect>16:9</aspect> </video> <rating system="MPAA"> <value>PG</value> <icon src="pg_symbol.png" /> </rating> <star-rating> <value>3/3</value> </star-rating> </programme> <programme> ... </programme> ... </tv>
This describes two channels and then a programme broadcast on one of the channels, then some more programmes. Almost everything in the DTD is optional, so you can write files which are much simpler than this example.
All dates and times in this DTD follow the same format, loosely based on ISO 8601. They can be 'YYYYMMDDhhmmss' or some initial substring, for example if you only know the year and month you can have 'YYYYMM'. You can also append a timezone to the end; if no explicit timezone is given, UT is assumed. Examples: '200007281733 BST', '200209', '19880523083000 +0300'. (BST == +0100.)
Version 0.5 (xmltv-0.4). Written by Ed Avis (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Gottfried Szing, thanks to others for suggestions. $Id: xmltv.dtd,v 1.19 2002/09/28 11:39:17 epaepa Exp $
<!-- The root element, tv.
Date should be the date when the listings were originally produced in whatever format; if you're converting data from another source, then use the date given by that source. The date when the conversion itself was done is not important.
To indicate the source of the listings, there are three attributes you can define:
'source-info-url' is a URL describing the data source in some human-readable form. So if you are getting your listings from SAT.1, you might set this to the URL of a page explaining how to subscribe to their feed. If you are getting them from a website, the URL might be the index of the site or at least of the TV listings section.
'source-info-name' is the link text for that URL; it should generally be the human-readable name of your listings supplier. Sometimes the link text might be printed without the link itself, in hardcopy listings for example.
'source-data-url' is where the actual data is grabbed from. This should link directly to the machine-readable data files if possible, but it's not rigorously defined what 'actual data' means. If you are parsing the data from human-readable pages, then it's more appropriate to link to them with the source-info stuff and omit this attribute.
To publicize your wonderful program which generated this file, you can use 'generator-info-name' (preferably in the form 'progname/version') and 'generator-info-url' (a link to more info about the program). --> <!ELEMENT tv (channel*, programme*)> <!ATTLIST tv date CDATA #IMPLIED source-info-url CDATA #IMPLIED source-info-name CDATA #IMPLIED source-data-url CDATA #IMPLIED generator-info-name CDATA #IMPLIED generator-info-url CDATA #IMPLIED >
<!-- channel - details of a channel
Each 'programme' element (see below) should have an attribute 'channel' giving the channel on which it is broadcast. If you want to provide more detail about channels, you can give some 'channel' elements before listing the programmes. The 'id' attribute of the channel should match what is given in the 'channel' attribute of the programme.
Typically, all the channels used in a particular TV listing will be included and then the programmes using those channels. But it's entirely optional to include channel details - you can just leave out channel elements or provide only some of them. It is also okay to give just channels and no programmes, if you just want to describe what TV channels are available in a certain area.
Each channel has one id attribute, which must be unique and should preferably be in the form suggested by RFC2838. Then one or more display names which are shown to the user. You might want a different display name for different languages, but also you can have more than one name for the same language. Names listed earlier are considered 'more canonical'.
Since the display name is just there as a way for humans to refer to the channel, it's acceptable to just put the channel number if it's fairly universal among viewers of the channel. But remember that this isn't an official statement of what channel number has been allocated, and the same number might be used for a different channel somewhere else. --> <!ELEMENT channel (display-name+, icon*, url*) > <!ATTLIST channel id CDATA #REQUIRED >
<!-- A user-friendly name for the channel - maybe even a channel number. List the most canonical / common ones first and the most obscure names last. The lang attribute corresponds to abbreviations mentioned in ISO 3316. --> <!ELEMENT display-name (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST display-name lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
<!-- A URL where you can find out more about the element that contains it (programme or channel). This might be the official site, or a fan page, whatever you like really.
If multiple url elements are given, the most authoritative or official (which might conflict...) sites should be listed first. --> <!ELEMENT url (#PCDATA)>
<!-- programme - details of a single programme transmission
A show will be exactly the same whether it is broadcast at 18:00 or 19:00, and on whichever channel. Technical details like broadcast time don't affect the content of the programme itself, so they are included as attributes of this element. Start time and channel are the two that you must include.
Sometimes VCR programming systems like PDC or VPS have their own notion of 'start time' which is different from the actual start time, so there are attributes for that. In practice, stop time will usually be the start time of the next programme, but if you can get it more accurate, good for you. Similarly, you can specify a code for Gemstar's Showview or VideoPlus programming systems.
TV listings sometimes have the problem of listing two or more programmes in the same timeslot, such as 'News; Weather'. We call this a 'clump' of programmes, and the 'clumpidx' attribute differentiates between two programmes sharing the same timeslot and channel. In this case News would have clumpidx="0/2" and Weather would have clumpidx="1/2". If you don't have this problem, be thankful!
To do: Some means of indicating breaks between programmes on the same channel. The 'channel' attribute references the 'id' of a channel element, but the DTD doesn't give a way to specify this constraint. Perhaps there is some better XML syntax we could use for that. --> <!ELEMENT programme (title+, sub-title*, desc*, credits?, date?, category*, language?, orig-language?, length?, icon*, url*, country*, episode-num?, video?, audio?, previously-shown?, premiere?, last-chance?, new?, subtitles*, rating*, star-rating? )> <!ATTLIST programme start CDATA #REQUIRED stop CDATA #IMPLIED pdc-start CDATA #IMPLIED vps-start CDATA #IMPLIED showview CDATA #IMPLIED videoplus CDATA #IMPLIED channel CDATA #REQUIRED clumpidx CDATA "0/1" >
<!-- Programme title, eg 'The Simpsons'. --> <!ELEMENT title (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST title lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
<!-- Sub-title or episode title, eg 'Datalore'. Should probably be called 'secondary title' to avoid confusion with captioning! --> <!ELEMENT sub-title (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST sub-title lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
<!-- Description of the programme or episode.
Unlike other elements, long bits of whitespace here are treated as equivalent to a single space, so you can break lines and write a pretty-looking paragraph if you wish. --> <!ELEMENT desc (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST desc lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
<!-- Credits for the programme.
People are listed in decreasing order of importance; so for example the starring actors appear first followed by the smaller parts. As with other parts of this file format, not mentioning a particular actor (for example) does not imply that he _didn't_ star in the film - so normally you'd list only the few most important people.
Adapter can be either somebody who adapted a work for television, or somebody who did the translation from another language. Maybe these should be separate, but if so how would 'translator' fit in with the 'language' element? --> <!ELEMENT credits (director*, actor*, writer*, adapter*, producer*, presenter*, commentator*, guest* )> <!ELEMENT director (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT actor (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT writer (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT adapter (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT producer (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT presenter (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT commentator (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT guest (#PCDATA)>
<!-- The date the programme or film was finished. This will probably be the same as the copyright date. --> <!ELEMENT date (#PCDATA)>
<!-- Type of programme, eg 'soap', 'comedy' or whatever the equivalents are in your language. There's no predefined set of categories and it's okay for a programme to belong to several. --> <!ELEMENT category (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST category lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
<!-- The language the programme will be broadcast in. This does not include the language of any subtitles, but it is affected by dubbing into a different language. For example, if a French film is dubbed into English, language=en and orig-language=fr.
There are two ways to specify the language. You can use the two-letter codes such as en or fr, or you can give a name such as 'English' or 'Deutsch'. In the latter case you might want to use the 'lang' attribute, for example
<language lang="fr">Allemand</language> --> <!ELEMENT language (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST language lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
<!-- The original language, before dubbing. The same remarks as for 'language' apply. --> <!ELEMENT orig-language (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST orig-language lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
<!-- The true length of the programme, not counting advertisements or trailers. But this does take account of any bits which were cut out of the broadcast version - eg if a two hour film is cut to 110 minutes and then padded with 20 minutes of advertising, length will be 110 minutes even though end time minus start time is 130 minutes. --> <!ELEMENT length (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST length units (seconds | minutes | hours) #REQUIRED>
<!-- An icon associated with the element that contains it. src: uri of image width, height: (optional) dimensions of image --> <!ELEMENT icon EMPTY> <!ATTLIST icon src CDATA #REQUIRED width CDATA #IMPLIED height CDATA #IMPLIED>
<!-- The value of the element that contains it. This is for elements that can have both a textual 'value' and an icon. At present there is no 'lang' attribute here because things like 'PG' are not translatable (although a document explaining what 'PG' actually means would be). It happens that 'value' is used only for this sort of thing. --> <!ELEMENT value (#PCDATA)>
<!-- A country where the programme was made or one of the countries in a joint production. You can give the name of a country, in which case you might want to specify the language in which this name is written, or you can give a two-letter uppercase country code, in which case the lang attribute should not be given. For example,
<country lang="en">Italy</country> <country>GB</country> --> <!ELEMENT country (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST country lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
<!-- Episode number
Not the title of the episode, its number or ID. There are several ways of numbering episodes, so the 'system' attribute lets you specify which you mean.
There are two predefined numbering systems, 'xmltv_ns' and 'onscreen'.
xmltv_ns: This is intended to be a general way to number episodes and parts of multi-part episodes. It is three numbers separated by dots, the first is the series or season, the second the episode number within that series, and the third the part number, if the programme is part of a two-parter. All these numbers are indexed from zero, and they can be given in the form 'X/Y' to show series X out of Y series made, or episode X out of Y episodes in this series, or part X of a Y-part episode. If any of these aren't known they can be omitted. You can put spaces whereever you like to make things easier to read.
Some examples will make things clearer. The first episode of the second series is '1.0.0/1' . If it were a two-part episode, then the first half would be '1.0.0/2' and the second half '1.0.1/2'. If you know that an episode is from the first season, but you don't know which episode it is or whether it is part of a multiparter, you could give the episode-num as '0..'. Here the second and third numbers have been omitted. If you know that this is the first part of a three-part episode, which is the last episode of the first series of thirteen, its number would be '0 . 12/13 . 0/3'. The series number is just '0' because you don't know how many series there are in total - perhaps the show is still being made!
The other predefined system, onscreen, is to simply copy what the programme makers write in the credits - 'Episode #FFEE' would translate to '#FFEE'.
You are encouraged to use one of these two if possible; if xmltv_ns is not general enough for your needs, let me know. But if you want, you can use your own system and give the 'system' attribute as a URL describing the system you use. --> <!ELEMENT episode-num (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST episode-num system CDATA "onscreen">
<!-- Video details: the subelements describe the picture quality as follows:
present: whether this programme has a picture (no, in the case of radio stations broadcast on TV or 'Blue'), legal values are 'yes' or 'no'. Obviously if the value is 'no', the other elements are meaningless.
colour: 'yes' for colour, 'no' for black-and-white.
aspect: The horizontal:vertical aspect ratio, eg '4:3' or '16:9'. --> <!ELEMENT video (present?, colour?, aspect?)> <!ELEMENT present (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT colour (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT aspect (#PCDATA)>
<!-- Audio details, similar to video details above.
present: whether this programme has any sound at all, 'yes' or 'no'.
stereo: Description of the stereo-ness of the sound. Legal values are currently 'mono' and 'stereo' and 'surround'; others like 'quad' might be added later. --> <!ELEMENT audio (present?, stereo?)> <!ELEMENT stereo (#PCDATA)>
<!-- When and where the programme was last shown, if known. Normally in TV listings 'repeat' means 'previously shown on this channel', but if you don't know what channel the old screening was on (but do know that it happened) then you can omit the 'channel' attribute. Similarly you can omit the 'start' attribute if you don't know when the previous transmission was (though you can of course give just the year, etc.).
The absence of this element does not say for certain that the programme is brand new and has never been screened anywhere before. --> <!ELEMENT previously-shown EMPTY> <!ATTLIST previously-shown start CDATA #IMPLIED channel CDATA #IMPLIED >
<!-- 'Premiere'. Different channels have different meanings for this word - sometimes it means a film has never before been seen on TV in that country, but other channels use it to mean 'the first showing of this film on our channel in the current run'. It might have been shown before, but now they have paid for another set of showings, which makes the first in that set count as a premiere!
So this element doesn't have a clear meaning, just use it to represent where 'premiere' would appear in a printed TV listing. You can use the content of the element to explain exactly what is meant, for example:
<premiere lang="en"> First showing on national terrestrial TV </premiere>
If you don't want to do that, just write empty content:
<premiere /> --> <!ELEMENT premiere (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST premiere lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
<!-- Last-chance. In a way this is the opposite of premiere. Some channels buy the rights to show a movie a certain number of times, and the first may be flagged 'premiere', the last as 'last showing'.
For symmetry with premiere, you may use the element content to describe exactly what is meant - it's unlikely to be the last showing ever! Otherwise, explicitly put empty content:
<last-chance /> --> <!ELEMENT last-chance (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST last-chance lang CDATA #IMPLIED>
<!-- New. This is the first screened programme from a new show that has never been shown on television before - if not worldwide then at least never before in this country. After the first episode or programme has been shown, subsequent ones are no longer 'new'. Similarly the second series of an established programme is not 'new'.
Note that this does not mean 'new season' or 'new episode' of an existing show. You can express part of that using the episode-num stuff. --> <!ELEMENT new EMPTY>
<!-- Subtitles. These can be either 'teletext' (sent digitally, and displayed at the viewer's request) or 'onscreen' (superimposed on the picture and impossible to get rid of). You can have multiple subtitle streams to handle different languages. Language for subtitles is specified in the same way as for programmes. --> <!ELEMENT subtitles (language?)> <!ATTLIST subtitles type (teletext | onscreen) #IMPLIED>
<!-- Rating. Various bodies decide on classifications for films - usually a minimum age you must be to see it. In principle the same could be done for ordinary TV programmes. Because there are many systems for doing this, you can also specify the rating system used (which in practice is the same as the body which made the rating). --> <!ELEMENT rating (value, icon*)> <!ATTLIST rating system CDATA #IMPLIED>
<!-- 'Star rating' - many listings guides award a programme a score as a quick guide to how good it is. The value of this element should be 'N / M', for example one star out of a possible five stars would be '1 / 5'. Zero stars is also a possible score (and not the same as 'unrated'). You should try to map whatever wacky system your listings source uses to a number of stars: so for example if they have thumbs up, thumbs sideways and thumbs down, you could map that to two, one or zero stars out of two. Whitespace between the numbers and slash is ignored. --> <!ELEMENT star-rating (value, icon*)>
<!-- (Why are things like 'stereo', which must be one of a small number of values, stored as the contents of elements rather than as attributes? Because they are data rather than metadata. Attributes are used for things like the language or encoding of element contents, or for programme transmission details.) -->
Prepared by Robin Cover for The XML Cover Pages archive.