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              XML Projects in Japan and Fujitsu's
              Approach to XLink/XPointer

              VToshimitsu Suzuki     VMasatomo Goto
                                                               (Manuscript received June 2, 2000)

              The Extensible Markup Language (XML)1) is a markup language developed in response
              to a recommendation by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).2)  It is a meta lan-
              guage used to make an information structure.  XML's original specification is the Stan-
              dard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).3)  Now, XML is used not only as a format
              language but also as a framework in various areas beyond the SGML field.  This paper
              describes the XML technology trends, the current state of XML technology, and some
              case studies in Japan and at Fujitsu.  This paper also describes HyBrick,4) which is an
              XML/SGML browser that was demonstrated at SGML'97, and the XLink5)/XPointer6)

1. Introduction                                             verified through these experiments.
      The specification of XML has been in use by                 Up to now, XML has been related to infor-
the W3C since 1996.  XML version 1.0 was released           mation technology (IT), and because of the IT
as a W3C recommendation in February 1998.                   revolution it is becoming a secure part of the foun-
XML is a meta language for marking up informa-              dation of new IT systems.  Last year, a lineup of
tion.  XML's original specification is the Standard         XML parsers and other XML basic software ap-
Generalized Markup Language (SGML), which is                peared, establishing a development environment
used to mark up documents for archiving and re-             for application software.  In addition, the W3C is
use.  XML is used not only as a markup language             determining XML-related peripheral specifica-
but also as a framework in various areas beyond             tions.  The year 2000 is expected to be the year of
the SGML field.                                             full XML implementation.
      The use of XML is more advanced in the U.S.                 In 1997, Fujitsu Laboratories demonstrated
and European countries because there is a much              the world's first XML/SGML browser, HyBrick, at
larger body of text documents in those countries            SGML'97 and published its first XML technical
and it is easy to adapt the XML technology for the          book.  Since then, we have been committed to XML
World Wide Web and its contents.  In Japan, XML             and its broad implementation.  (HyBrick comes
applications have been designed and developed,              from work we started in 1994 to produce an orig-
and newspapers and magazines have carried XML               inal multimedia browser.)  We have been seeking
articles since the end of 1997.  Last year, many            to develop XML specifications both independent-
experiments that demonstrated uses of XML, for              ly and as a member of the World Wide Web
example, in financial trading and EDI trading,              Consortium (W3C) working group responsible for
were conducted with the government of Japan.                link specifications.  This paper explains the cur-
Although XML has yet to be applied to actual sys-           rent status of XML in Japan and the activities,
tems, various methods for its application are being         study results, and future direction of Fujitsu and

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T. Suzuki et al.: XML Projects in Japan and Fujitsu's Approach to XLink/XPointer

Fujitsu Laboratories in this area.                                    XLink/XPointer/XML Base11)/XInclude12) for
                                                                       defining links,
2. XML and related work                                               XPath13) for specifying XML structure appli-
       XML-related specifications are mainly deter-                    cation positions, and
mined by the W3C and the Internet Engineering                         XML Query Language (XQL) and XML-QL14)
Task Force (IETF)7) and are mostly based on XML                        as interfaces for easy retrieval from XML doc-
Version 1.0, which was recommended in Febru-                           uments.
ary 1998.  From the beginning of the design stage,                     The basic specifications include the Resource
it has been expected that XML will become a pro-                  Description Framework (RDF),15) which is a meta-
tocol having the advantages of HTML and SGML,                     information description framework for retrieval
but not their disadvantages.  Consequently, soft-                 and content rating.
ware manufacturers immediately started to
develop software that supports XML.  The first                    2.2 Application-dependent specifications
XML-supporting software to be released was the                         Some examples of application-dependent
XML-based Channel Definition Format (CDF)8)                       specifications are:
from Microsoft.                                                       Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)16) for the
       Microsoft installed this technology in their                    graphic format,
Web browser, Internet Explorer (IE), to realize the                   XHTML17) for the document format,
functions for a new information push service called                   Synchronized Multimedia Integration Lan-
"Active Channel."  As a result, the number of XML                      guage (SMIL),18) and
studies and implementations began to increase at                      Mathematical Markup Language (MathML).19)
a fast pace, mainly in the U.S.  Many companies                        In Japan, application-dependent XML speci-
noticed the advantages offered by XML and start-                  fications are used, for example, for electronic books
ed putting them into their applications.                          (JepaX), documents submitted to the Ministry of
       However, XML does not provide adequate                     Welfare about new drugs that companies want to
functions to satisfy all of the different kinds of                market, legal information, and security market
requirements for user applications.  Therefore,                   definitions.  The Japan Electronic Publishing
related specifications were proposed to compen-                   Association (JEPA) is responsible for JepaX.20)  In
sate for functions that were lacking and the                      addition, Japanese companies are leading the
specifications were examined extensively.  The                    study of domestic and international XML appli-
specifications that extend the ability of XML                     cations that add information to static images
can be classified as basic specifications,                        (Dig35).21)
application-dependent specifications, or framework
specifications.                                                   2.3 Framework specifications
                                                                       XML. ORG,22) which is hosted by the Organi-
2.1 Basic specifications                                          zation for the Advancement of Structured
       The basic specifications supporting XML are:               Information Standards (OASIS),23) provides repos-
      Namespaces for using several document type                 itory and registry functions for multiple DTDs.
       definitions (DTDs) in the same XML document,               A similar framework is BizTalk24) hosted by
      schema for extending the definitions of ele-               Microsoft.  This framework defines the message
       ments and definitions,                                     format between individual systems.
      Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL)9)/XSL                      A variety of industries are promoting the
       Transformation (XSLT)10) for defining style                standardization of their own vocabularies as in-
       sheets,                                                    dustrial frameworks.  Some typical examples are

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                                               T. Suzuki et al.: XML Projects in Japan and Fujitsu's Approach to XLink/XPointer

cXML,25) ebXML,26) eCo,27) and CBL.28)  Various in-                 appears to be more convenient than the conven-
dustries in Japan have also started this process                    tional paper-based systems.
of standardization, but not on a full scale.  The
Japanese Standard Association (JIS)29) has recog-                   3.2 Electronic catalog auto-collection
nized the necessity of standard vocabularies and                          system
has started looking for a common framework.                               NTT Communications is experimenting with
                                                                    an online auto-collection system for XML-based
3. XML in Japan                                                     liquor catalogs that breweries create and place on
      The New Media Development Association                         their Web sites.31)  The system automatically col-
(NMDA)30) in Japan constructed an electronic ap-                    lects the catalogs and then provides optimum
plication system in 1998; this was the first                        merchandise information according to retrieval
example of XML system construction and opera-                       requests from customers.
tion.  Since then, many other experiments have
been carried out.  Furthermore, XML-only mail-                      3.3 Information delivery service
ing lists have been set up and run on a volunteer                         An XML-based personal information deliv-
basis and the first vendor of XML-dedicated soft-                   ery service32) is currently being demonstrated by
ware has appeared.  These events have generated                     Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd., Otsuka Shokai Co.,
even more XML activity.  Details about some of                      Ltd., and NTT.  The purpose of this service is to
the attempts to establish general support of XML                    customize financial information for personal use
in Japan are given below.                                           and supply that information to individual and in-
                                                                    stitutional investors.  This service features style
3.1 Project for electronic applications                             sheets that are used to customize the layout of
      and notices in administrative                                 contents for each user and embedded links and
      procedures                                                    pointers in the supplied information.  This enables
      The project for electronic applications and no-               each user to have continuous access to the latest
tices is aimed at developing a highly efficient                     information.
system that can electronically process a series of
administrative procedures.  The procedures are                      3.4  Digital contents (BML) for
creating, filing, and examining written applica-                          television sets
tions; registering data; and sending notifications                        The Broadcast Markup Language (BML) is
after receiving the applications.  In this project, a               an example of an XML application in a TV-
database consisting of application forms was writ-                  contents format for satellite digital broadcasting.
ten in XML.  Fujitsu Laboratories participated in                   Fujitsu is also a member of the BML project.  The
this NMDA project and took charge of the pro-                       U.S. is creating BHTML, and the Association of
cessing section for application form input and                      Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB)33) in
display.  We developed a function for XML display                   Japan is creating a protocol.
in an existing browser and XML input from an                              The ARIB proposed the first BML draft in
existing browser.  The system developed in this                     the middle of 1999 to establish acceptance of the
project was proved to be effective and practical in                 final specifications before full-scale implementa-
an experiment at the Database Center for the                        tion toward the end of 2000.
project.  However, electronic applications are not                        BML produces contents using XML-based
permitted under existing governmental rules and                     XHTML and XSLT.  When contents are received,
local ordinances about the formats of administra-                   the TV set runs different scripts (ECMScrpt) em-
tive application forms.  Nonetheless, the system                    bedded in the contents and processes data for the

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T. Suzuki et al.: XML Projects in Japan and Fujitsu's Approach to XLink/XPointer

screen layout and a variety of buttons.  Another                  held for XML developers called SGML'97.  Our
language, BXML, is being created as a contents                    approach is explained below.
format that permits the design of arbitrary tags.                      Through the research and development of the
BXML is designed to be superior to BML.  Fujitsu                  XML/SGML browser, Fujitsu Laboratories recog-
participated in creating specifications for the pro-              nized the importance of basic XML technologies.
tocol and is currently developing software for its                Our browser used to have an SGML parser for
processing.  Experimental broadcasts using BML                    XML processing.  However, considering the per-
are scheduled to start in September.                              formance and the need to support high processing
                                                                  speeds and standard interfaces, we designed and
3.5 Electronic disclosure system                                  installed parsers that had a lightweight W3C stan-
       The Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and               dard interface such as Simple API for XML36)
Retrieval (EDGAR)34) database in the U.S. is a                    (SAX) or Document Object Model37) (DOM).
well-known system for releasing information to                    Fujitsu Laboratories programmed the parser in
stockholders.  A review committee at the Minis-                   Java and also in C++.  Because of the Java
try of Finance is proposing the Electronic                        programming, we participated in the Java Com-
Disclosure for Investors' Network (EDINET) as a                   munity Process (JCP)38) proposed by Sun
Japanese version of EDGAR.  To support EDINET,                    Microsystems and supported a Java API for XML
financial institutions are constructing an XML-                   Parsing (JAXP).39)  Our Java-version parser is a
based system.  This system collects settlement                    completely compatibility parser that supports
briefs and other materials released electronically                JAXP.
from listed companies to supply XML-based                              Fujitsu Laboratories is also participating in
information to individual and institutional                       other leading edge projects in Japan.
investors.                                                             As well as the aforementioned NMDA, we
                                                                  joined the financial foundation project and the
3.6  Information sharing between                                  trading EDI project proposed in the third supple-
       sections                                                   mentary budget of the Information-technology
       Another example of an XML application by                   Promotion Agency (IPA) of Japan40) to become in-
Fujitsu is a system for information sharing.35)  This             volved in system development using XML
system uses XML as a common data format for                       technology.  The financial foundation project pro-
sharing information between several sections                      duced a system for processing the United Nations
within a company.  By using this system, desig-                   rules for Electronic Data Interchange for Admin-
nated sections release the latest data internally.                istration (UN/EDIFACT) information in XML.
Sales staff can thereby obtain necessary informa-                 The technologies developed in this project have
tion, make estimates from the latest merchandise                  commercial promise.
lists, and check data consistency on-site.  Then,                      Regarding XML-related products, Fujitsu has
notices based on order data can be sent to busi-                  already developed and marketed an SGML Edi-
ness support systems in the accounting section,                   tor.41)  This SGML Editor supports the Document
production section, and other sections.  This sys-                Style Semantics and Specification Language
tem links business sections to make processing                    (DSSSL - ISO 10179)42) for WYSIWYG previews.
easy and reduce total costs.                                      This software has a DSSSL style editor so that
                                                                  DSSSL style sheets can be easily created.  In ad-
4. Our approach to XML                                            dition, since XML can be specified when saving, it
       We have been involved in the development                   is easy to convert an SGML document into an XML
of XML technology since we attended an event                      document.

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                                               T. Suzuki et al.: XML Projects in Japan and Fujitsu's Approach to XLink/XPointer

5. Our approach to XLink/XPointer                                         The XLink Working Group used to define this
      Our research and development activities                       standard using a unique syntax.  However, since
also cover the XML-related standards, Xlink                         XPointer can perform processing equivalent to the
and XPointer.  We have constructed several                          expressions used in the XML document conver-
systems43),44) while trying to realize the potential                sion language, a common syntax between the two
of hyperlinks with these standards.  This chapter                   was defined.  Therefore, XPointer is currently de-
describes these systems: but first, the character-                  fined with additional functions and limitations on
istics of XLink and XPointer are described,                         this syntax.  This syntax is called XPath.
followed by an explanation of the performance                             We examined the effectiveness of applying
realized with the two standards.                                    these two standards in two specific areas:
      XLink and XPointer are description languag-                        Hyperlink functions running on IE, Netscape
es essential for constructing hyperlinks.  The W3C                        Navigator, and other browsers, and
working group responsible for linking is mapping                         server software applications running on CGI,
out XLink and XPointer, but both languages are                            ASP, and other kinds of servers.
still in the working draft stage.                                         The HyBrick system and Link Server Page
      XLink is a hyperlink description language                     system were constructed to verify the effective-
that provides flexible and extensible XML-defined                   ness.  While creating contents, we found the
hyperlink functions such as HTML's Anchor (A)                       process of defining links to be more difficult than
and Image (IMG) in XML.  XLink enables resourc-                     anticipated.  We solved this problem by creating a
es to be related or traversed by different methods.                 link editor that has a Graphical User Interface
An HTML link has a structure consisting of only                     (GUI), which is required in any software applica-
a link start position and a jump destination.                       tion for generating links.
XLink, on the other hand, can describe not only a                         However, a more important factor is the lack
one-to-one link from one document to another but                    of individual link functions in the aforementioned
also a link between three or more documents.                        three systems.  Therefore, an XLink/XPointer link
      Therefore, even operations that currently                     function is incorporated as a common module into
have to be defined with a script can be pro-                        each system.  This function makes it easy to con-
grammed easily using an XLink link.  For example,                   struct systems.
for a function to display a pull-down menu and                            The four applications explained below con-
jump to a specified location, these operations must                 tain this link processor.
be described in a Java script and each jump desti-
nation must be embedded in the source code as a                     5.1  HyBrick
script.  Programming the same operation in XLink,                         Current WWW systems support very simple
however, only requires each link to be defined as                   hyperlinks.  Only a one-to-one directional relation-
an XML document, like other contents in the same                    ship from one specific location to another can be
XML document.                                                       defined.  To define multiple links from one specif-
      XPointer is a language for pointing to a spe-                 ic location, links have to be described in a line of
cific location or fragment in an XML document.                      code or script has to be written.  In addition, a
The pointer can be defined immediately after a                      unique document cannot be created based on ref-
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) (RFC2396) as                      erences, and a unique link to a document on a
either a fragment ID or as a character string to                    CD-ROM or other documents cannot be changed,
describe a link destination using XLink.  XPoint-                   because such links must be predefined in a re-
er will provide essential and important functions                   source document.  Unique browser functions must
in XML.                                                             be incorporated into a system and provided be-

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T. Suzuki et al.: XML Projects in Japan and Fujitsu's Approach to XLink/XPointer

fore such processing is possible.  Incorporation as               tinations can easily be specified.  Moreover, func-
an application-dependent function is also the only                tions can be added for security, copyright
method for a link function that returns control                   protection, and other kinds of processing.  The se-
from a hyperlink destination to the original posi-                curity function allows a security level to be set for
tion.  To solve these problems, HyBrick has a                     each jump destination so that jump destinations
browser that provides the following three types                   can be displayed according to their security
of XLink-defined hyperlink functions:                             levels.  The copyright protection function automat-
      Link descriptions in a document that are                   ically embeds a copyright mark into a document
       different from the displayed descriptions,                 when it is accessed.  Furthermore, since links from
      bidirectional links, and                                   other locations can be defined in a dialog box, sev-
      links to several locations.                                eral links may be defined together at a specific
       HyBrick is a document browser with an                      link location.  Figure 3 shows a link list dialog
XLink/XPointer processing function that uses                      box.
DSSSL style sheets to display XML/SGML docu-                              To jump to a target, a corresponding link is
ments.  Figure 1 shows an example of a HyBrick                    selected from this dialog box, then a jump desti-
window.  The location defined in the link is under-               nation is selected from the locator list dialog box
lined.                                                            that is displayed next.  Thus, links with multiple
       Similar to an ordinary WWW browser,                        destinations can be generated from a single re-
HyBrick jumps (hyperjumps) to the location de-                    source.
fined in the link when the link is clicked.  However,                     HyBrick is currently available as freeware
hyperlink processing differs depending on the link.               and has many users.
If the link points to a single target, HyBrick jumps
directly to the corresponding page and displays                   5.2 Link Server Page
it, similar to an ordinary WWW browser.  If the                           As a server application, a hyperlink effective-
link is connected to several destinations, the
browser displays a dialog box listing jump desti-
nations, as shown in Figure 2.
       For a hyperjump, a destination is selected
from the jump destination list.  Since this dialog
box displays character strings representing jump
destinations (defined as link attributes), link des-

                                                                          Figure 2
                                                                          Locator list dialog box.

          Figure 1                                                        Figure 3
          HyBrick window.                                                 Link list dialog box.

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                                               T. Suzuki et al.: XML Projects in Japan and Fujitsu's Approach to XLink/XPointer

ly solves certain problems in the WWW.                              used to customize contents for each user.
      The people who operate the WWW can rough-
ly be classified into three categories:                             5.3 Link editor
     The content providers who provide informa-                           Since XLink is described in the XML syntax,
      tion,                                                         only programmers and technicians with specific
     the portal administrators who organize in-                    know-how can create hyperlinks with complicat-
      formation before providing it to users, and                   ed link information.  We therefore designed and
     the end users who reference the information                   installed a GUI link editor to help users without
      on a client.                                                  that specific know-how to create hyperlinks.  As
      The XLink system described above effectively                  Figure 5 shows, the link editor consists of two
serves content providers and portal administra-                     panes.
tors.  Also, this system is useful for end users.                          The link information pane on the left displays
      In any system, it is generally very costly to                 link information, and the contents display pane
maintain contents so that users continue to re-                     on the right is used to create and browse links.
ceive the latest data.  A portal administrator must
always create a copy of information transmitted
from a content provider in a local server, update
the information periodically, and organize infor-                                             Cont1.xml
mation into individualized formats.  XLink                                                                 creation
realizes this processing dynamically.  The Link
Server Page (LSP) allows a content provider to                       Skelton.xml
concentrate on server management and other                                                    Cont2.xml                           Result.xml
work.  Under this system, any user can access the                                                          Human 
                                                                                                           resources LSP
latest information, even before the local server is                                                                    process
updated.                                                             Frame & link
                                                                     document                                                New XML document
                                                                                                                             created by embedding
      This system is called Link Server Page be-                                              Cont3.xml                      document's fragments
cause its configuration is similar to that of Active                       Link written in                 Provided
Server Page (ASP)45) and Java Server Page (JSP).46)                        XLink                           by content
      Figure 4 shows a conceptual diagram of LSP
operation.                                                          Figure 4
                                                                    LSP operation.
      To access a portal site, a client usually spec-
ifies a specific URL.  This system judges whether
a corresponding file is a link document.  If the file
is a link document (e.g., skelton.xml), the system
accesses documents that have contents (e.g.,
content1.xml, content2.xml, and content3.xml)
and then obtains and embeds the necessary infor-
mation.  Then, the newly integrated document
(e.g., result.xml) is sent back to the client.
      Under this system, a portal administrator
only needs to manage link information and portal
pages, and a content provider is free to provide
contents, irrespective of the format and time.  In                            Figure 5
addition, user information can be managed and                                 Link editor start window.

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T. Suzuki et al.: XML Projects in Japan and Fujitsu's Approach to XLink/XPointer

When a link document is opened, link informa-                     5.4 XLink/XPointer processor40)
tion is displayed in a tree format and action in                       The XLink/XPointer processor (XLP) is in-
the pane creates a link.  The following is an ex-                 stalled on 100% Pure Java to process XLink/
ample of link creation.                                           XPointer on DOM.  This processor constructs a
       First, "Create Link" is selected from the menu             link processing model by preprocessing after DOM
bar to display the dialog box shown in Figure 6                   construction.  A DOM-like application program-
and the required information for link creation is                 ming interface (API) has been set up as a unique
entered.                                                          link processing model to help describe hyperlinks
       Then, a resource to link to the created link is            specific to individual applications.  This module
defined.  Next, the document in the contents in-                  is called XLink processor and is available as free-
formation pane is displayed and the link                          ware from Fujitsu's home page.
destination is selected and highlighted as shown
in Figure 7.                                                      6. Future work
       Then, "Create Locator" is selected from the                     At present, Fujitsu is developing an XML
menu bar to display the Locator creation dialog                   parser (DOM/SAX), XLink, XPointer, XSLT, and
box shown in Figure 8 and the required informa-                   other basic technologies separately in a software
tion is entered to create a link.                                 development kit (SDK).
       This semi-automatic GUI system for link de-                     Now that XML is poised for explosive growth
scription makes it easy to create link documents.                 in the world of Internet technologies, we will effi-
                                                                  ciently integrate these basic technologies and
                                                                  develop proprietary systems.  Especially regard-
                                                                  ing XLink, we will keep developing practical
                                                                  applications from multiple points of view.  We will
                                                                  continue to develop the use of XML as a basic tech-
                                                                  nology for realizing hyperjumps from hyperlinks
                                                                  and document display on the WWW.
                                                                       XML is now used mainly for data exchange
                                                                  and requires compatibility with document formats.
                                                                  To meet this requirement, a method of combining
       Figure 6                                                   XSLT or XSL processing must be examined.
       Link creation dialog box.

                                                                  7. Conclusion
                                                                       XML has the dual role of being a document

        Figure 7                                                       Figure 8
        Selecting a link destination.                                  Locator creation dialog box.

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                                               T. Suzuki et al.: XML Projects in Japan and Fujitsu's Approach to XLink/XPointer

notation and a data exchange format.  As described              
in this paper, XML is mainly used as a data ex-                           ery/cdf/reference/channels.asp
change format to access the same data from                          9)    World Wide Web Consortium: Extensible
different kinds of platforms and applications and                         Stylesheet Language (XSL).
to execute processing based on this data.  New                  
hyperlink applications will conform to this trend.                  10) World Wide Web Consortium: XSL Transfor-
      Currently, XSL is popular as a data exchange                        mation (XSLT).
format, but if it is standardized, its use for docu-            
ment notation or as a substitute for HTML will                      11) World Wide Web Consortium: XML Base.
expand.  However, in the current situation, basic               
HTML technology for hyperlinks remains essen-                       12) World Wide Web Consortium: XML Include-
tial, and XLink and XPointer will become more                             sions (XInclude).
important in the foreseeable future.                                      http://www/w3/org/TR/xinclude
      Lastly, a few words about Minimal XML.                        13) World Wide Web Consortium: XML Path Lan-
Minimal XML is especially aimed at data ex-                               guage (XPath).  W3C Recommendation.
change and features simple and fast parse                       
processing to eliminate attributes and entity ref-                  14) World Wide Web Consortium: XML-QL:
erences.  Keep an eye on the development of this                          A Query Language for XML.
protocol because it is suitable for use in Electron-            
ic Data Interchange (EDI).                                          15) World Wide Web Consortium: Resource De-
                                                                          scription Framework (RDF) Model and
References                                                                Syntax Specification.  W3C Recommendation.
1)    World Wide Web Consortium: Extensible                     
      Markup Language (XML) 1.0. W3C Recom-                         16) World Wide Web Consortium: Scalable Vec-
      mendation.                                                          tor Graphics (SVG) 1.0 Specification.                              
2)    World Wide Web Consortium.                                    17) World Wide Web Consortium: XHTML 1.0:                                                   The Extensible HyperText Markup Langage
3)    ISO 8879:1986 Information processing  Text                          A Reformulation of HTML 4 in XML 1.0.
      and office systems  Standard Generalized                           W3C Recommendation.
      Markup Language (SGML).                                   
4)    HyBrick: SGML/XML Browser supporting                          18) World Wide Web Consortium: Synchronized
      XLink/XPointer.                                                     Multimedia Interface Language (SMIL).               
      Brick/en/index.html                                           19) World Wide Web Consortium: Mathematical
5)    World Wide Web Consortium: XML Linking                              Markup Language (MathML).
      Language (XLink) W3C Working Draft.                                                           20) JepaX.
6)    World Wide Web Consortium: XML Pointer                    
      Language (XPointer) W3C Working Draft.                        21) Digital Imaging Group (Dig35).                                 
7)    IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force.                        22)                                       
8)    Microsoft: Channel Definition Format (CDF).                   23) Organization for the Advancement of Struc-

FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J.,36, 2,(December 2000)                                                                                183

T. Suzuki et al.: XML Projects in Japan and Fujitsu's Approach to XLink/XPointer

       tured Information Standards (OASIS).                       36) Simple API for XML (SAX).                             
24) BizTalk.                                                      37) World Wide Web Consortium: Document                                              Object Model (DOM).
25) Commerce XML (cXML).                                                                        38) Java Community Process Program (JCP).
26) Electronic Business XML Institute (ebXML).                                                           typrocess
27) CommerceNet (eCo).                                            39) Java API for XML Parsing (JAXP).                                communi-
28) Commerce One (CBL).                                                typrocess/final/jsr005                                 40) Information-technology Promotion Agency,
29) Japanese Standards Association (JIS).                              Japan (IPA).                                  
30) New Media Development Association (NMDA).                     41) Fujitsu: SGML Editor (in Japanese).              
31) Osake no Tansu.                                                    hs_guide/soft/win32/kaihatu/04831000.html                               42) ISO/IEC: 10179, Document Style Semantics
32) The Internet Personal Direct Mail Example.                         and Specification Language (DSSSL).              
       html                                                       43) M. Goto.: An Implementation Design of XLL
33) Association of Radio Industries and Busi-                          as a Subset Of HyTime.
       nesses (ARIB).                                                  SGML/XML Europe'98, pp.461-470.                                      44) XLink Processor.  Japanese page only.
34) The Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and             
       Retrieval (EDGAR).                                         45) Microsoft: Active Server Page (ASP).                        
35) XML SDK (in Japanese).                                             er/asp/ASPover.asp                   46) Sun Microsystems: JavaServer Page (JSP).

                       Toshimitsu Suzuki received the B.E.                               Masatomo Goto received the B.S. de-
                       and M.E. degrees in Electro-Communi-                              gree in Electronic Engineering from
                       cation Engineering from the University                            Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan in
                       of Electro-Communication, Tokyo, Japan                            1992.
                       in 1985 and 1987, respectively.                                   He joined Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd.,
                       He joined Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd.,                              Kawasaki, Japan in 1992 and has been
                       Kawasaki, Japan in 1987.  Since then,                             engaged in research and development
                       he has been involved in research and                              of macro language on a text editor.  He
                       development of communication servic-                              moved within Fujitsu Laboratories to
                       es and human interfaces, including                                Akashi, Japan and since then has been
                       hardware architecture.  His current re-                           engaged in research and development
search interests include document markup, style sheets, and       of SGML, Hytime, and XML systems. He is a member of the
linking.                                                          XLinking Working Group of the W3C.

E-mail:                                      E-mail:

184                                                                                 FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J.,36, 2,(December 2000)