G. Zoia, R. Zhou, M. Mattavelli "MPEG Audio Coding and XML: samples, models, descriptors"
The different MPEG standards are well-known for their
media compression capabilities. Starting with MPEG-4, the
goal of the standardization activity has also included media
representation, indexation and retrieval. MPEG-4 joins
advanced compression technologies with high-level media
representations such as synthesized content and scene
descriptions. MPEG-7 defines standard media descriptors
and the way in which these descriptors can be compressed
if desired, handled and extended in user defined description
schemes. In this paper first the main audio-related features
of the last MPEG standards, which go well beyond simple
compression, are briefly reviewed. Then some examples of
applications are developed showing how XML can be
profitably used in conjunction with MPEG-4 and MPEG-7
schemes in the field of musical applications.
G. Tremblay, F. Champagne "Automatic marking of musical dictations by applying the edit distance algorithm on a symbolic music representation"
A key practice of basic musical training is the use of musical
dictations for ear training and training in music writing.
Marking such dictations for large groups of students can be
a lot of work. In this paper, we present a tool that can help
automate the marking of musical dictations.
The edit distance, which computes a similarity metric between
two strings, has been used in various areas such
as string/text analysis, protein/genome matching in biocomputing,
and musical applications, for example, music
retrieval or musicological analysis. The tool we present
can be considered an application of the edit distance to the
marking of musical dictations.
Computing an edit distance on musical scores requires using
an appropriate symbolic representation. We use MusicXML,
an XML application for standard Western music
notation. Given an appropriate Document Type Definition
for MusicXML, existing Java tools can be used to obtain a
MusicXML parser. Such a parser, given appropriate input
files, then generates an intermediate form (DOM object) on
which analyses and transformations are performed in order
to compute the edit distance. In turn, the edit distance is
used to give a mark as well as identify some of the key errors.
J. Steyn "Framework for a music markup language"
Objects and processes of music that would be marked with
a markup language need to be demarcated before a markup
language can be designed. This paper investigates issues to
be considered for the design of an XML-based general
music markup language. Most present efforts focus on
CWN (Common Western Notation), yet that system
addresses only a fraction of the domain of music. It is
argued that a general music markup language should
consider more than just CWN. A framework for such a
comprehensive general music markup language is
proposed. Such a general markup language should consist
of modules that could be appended to core modules on a
D. L. Baggi "A Proposal for a Regular Grammar To Parse Jazz Chords Notation"
A piece of improvised Jazz is identified
by its harmonic structure of changes, placed in
the harmonic grid. For each chord, or change, a
particular notation is used which is well known
by Jazz musicians, and appears also in other
contexts, such as guitar charts.
While there are minor differences and
inconsistencies in this notation, the meaning is
always clear to practitioner of the art. Purpose of
this work is to propose a simple grammar, or
standard, which, while formalizing the notation,
does not impose constraints, allows extension and
easy recognition of unknown symbols, new
symbol combinations and definitions.
M. Lepper "Modeling Music using XML - Some Basic Consideration -"
The paper tries to give basic outline of a holistic and analytic
approach to capture all ”thinkable“ kinds of music in a generic
and aspect-oriented XML-based architecture.
G. Haus, M. Longari "Towards a Symbolic/Time-Based Music language based on XML"
The representation of Symbolic Music Information is the
fundamental element of Music Information Processing.
Among the several approaches developed in history the
markupped one seems to be the most promising. Starting
from SMDL, some XML proposals are briefly analyzed.
We present our approach of layered representation of
Symbolic Music Information based on the space-time
organization of events. Our model splits music
information in layers of representation and takes the
symbolic one as the gravity center. Moreover, the
symbolic layer contains a space-time structure by means
of which all other layers are brought together. Then we
discuss other XML standard that can be usefully related to
the XML representation of music information, such as
security and vector graphics standards. Lastly, we deal
with some open problems in the field of music processing
that might be of interest for our view of symbolic
M. Good "MusicXML in Practice: Issues in Translation and Analysis"
Since its introduction in 2000, MusicXML has become the
most quickly adopted symbolic music interchange format
since MIDI, with support by market and technology leaders
in both music notation and music scanning. This paper
introduces the key design concepts behind MusicXML,
discusses some of the translation issues that have emerged
in current commercial applications, and introduces the use
of MusicXML together with XML Query for music
analysis and information retrieval applications.
P. Roland "The Music Encoding Initiative (MEI)"
This paper draws parallels between the Text Encoding
Initiative (TEI) and the proposed Music Encoding Initiative
(MEI), reviews existing design principles for music
representations, and describes an eXtensible Markup
Language (XML) document type definition (DTD) for
modeling music notation which attempts to incorporate
G.C.S. Frederico "Actos: A Peer-to-Peer Application for the Retrieval of Encoded Music"
This article describes Actos, a Peer-to-Peer application
developed in Java that uses the JXTA open platform. Actos
uses XML-based ChordML for the symbolic representation
of music including chords, lyrics and metainformation. It
employs XML-based ChordQL to perform chord sequence
M. Longari "A case study: Prepared-Piano Notation in XML"
In this paper we want to show how easy it is to use the XML language to extend music notation with
new features, and how to utilize them for the prepared-piano notation.